Chapter 7: Nature and nature use as multi-interest: neither wilderness nor conflict-free
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This is the last of the four chapters discussing different specific binaries in relation to the overarching nature-culture binary. It focuses on perhaps the most foundational of these binaries: that between wilderness and civilisation. In this, wilderness has been conceived of as an either conflict-free or anarchical area and a site for small-scale communities rather than advanced societies. This has serious ramifications on how we conceive of nature areas in relation to assumptions regarding the traditionality of people living in these areas, as well as the complexity of societies and the technologies used. Examples of contradictions to such assumptions are taken from, for instance, utmark/erämaa conceptions in Fennoscandia.