Chapter 2: The European Union as a global environmental regulator in the context of ship recycling
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This chapter examines the EU as a green leader, advocating sustainable ship recycling and regulating transboundary movements of hazardous wastes sometimes more strictly than, or prior to, international standards. As a significant market and normative power, the EU significantly influences international regimes. On the one hand, as a contracting party of the Basel Convention, it influences the operation of the regime from within. On the other hand, the EU influences developments at the International Maritime Organization, despite its lack of formal membership status. The complex arrangements for the EU’s representation and participation in international forums complicate and potentially limit its ability to drive regulatory action on global phenomena. From a normative perspective, the chapter discusses legitimacy concerns raised by the EU’s unilateral action with extraterritorial reach for third countries, particularly developing countries engaged in shipbreaking.