Chapter 8: Conflicts over the institutional landscape of climate finance
Open access

The chapter examines the dynamics of two conflicts in that led to the gradual expansion of differential treatment in the area of climate finance. The first conflict arose in 2001 and led to the establishment of the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF), the Adaptation Fund (AF) and the Least Developed Countries (LDC) Fund. The second conflict peaked in 2009 and resulted in the establishment of yet another fund, the Green Climate Fund (GCF). The chapter reconstructs how the negotiation dynamics differed in both conflicts. The outcomes of both conflicts led to increased financial transfers from North to South, and they adjusted the ways in which decision-making about such transfers were organized in favour of the interests of rights-holders. This gradual expansion was possible because the G-77 and China remained united on questions of climate finance and because industrialized countries had to offer concessions if they wanted developing countries to accept commitments on climate mitigation.