Chapter 1: Introduction to Frontex, EASO and Europol as operational decentralized agencies
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Decentralized agencies institutionally shape the EU Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, deepen integration to tackle cross-border challenges and ensure the effective and uniform implementation of EU laws and policies at the national level. In particular, the so-called “refugee crisis” prompted the urge to ensure the functioning of the Schengen area and the Common European Asylum System, the need to operationally assist those Member States most affected by the sudden and extraordinary arrival of mixed migratory flows, and the convenience to effectively and uniformly implement the EU measures adopted in regards to migration, asylum and border management. This book analyzes the evolution of the operational tasks and cooperation of Frontex, Easo and Europol. Special attention is paid to the expansion of the legal mandates of these agencies, the reinforcement of the activities they undertake in practice on the ground and to what extent a gap exists between these two dimensions.