Chapter 1: Introduction: regulation of biotechnology, between anxieties and trust in scientific progress
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Biotechnology significantly contributes to economic development as well as to the improvement of life quality. From an international and comparative perspective, biotechnological products and processes give rise to a broad range of regulatory issues which range from human rights to international trade law. Legal responses reflect intense scientific and ethical debates. Green biotechnology modernizes agricultural processes, increasing the quality of the products that reach consumers. Red biotechnology helps develop new vaccines and other pharmaceutical products. White biotechnology has transformed entire industries through the use of living organisms (e.g. bacterial enzymes or biomass) in industrial processes and energy production. Grey biotechnology fosters environmental protection and accelerates recovery of damaged ecosystems. Blue biotechnology improves the utilisation of marine resources. In various sectors, recent developments of genome editing open new ground-breaking perspectives, e.g. for the prevention and treatment of diseases. In the field of agriculture, they allow to increase productivity and to reduce the use of pesticides or fertilizers.

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