In this timely book, Marco Siddi expertly navigates topics of European energy politics drawing on pressing issues from times of unprecedented crisis. From the war in Ukraine to worsening climate change, he illustrates the intense pressure the EU is under to accelerate its green transition, and explores the potential obstacles that may arise on the road to energy security.

  • ABC News (2022) ‘China halts climate, military ties over Pelosi Taiwan visit’. 5 August. https://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/china-summons-european-diplomats-statement-taiwan-87981101, accessed 23 January 2023.

  • Agence Europe (2020a) ‘“Climate Law”, partial political agreement of European Environment Ministers excluding question of 2030 objective’. Press release, 24 October. https://agenceurope.eu/en/bulletin/article/12588/1, accessed 20 September 2022.

  • Agence Europe (2020b) ‘“Climate Law”, German EU Council Presidency proposes Member States adopt partial agreement excluding 2030 target issue’. Press release, 21 October. https://agenceurope.eu/en/bulletin/article/12585/10, accessed 20 September 2022.

  • Agence Europe (2020c) ‘“Climate Law”, green light from Member States’ ambassador to start trilogues’. 18 November. https://agenceurope.eu/en/bulletin/article/12604/15, accessed 20 September 2022.

  • Agence Europe (2020d) ‘EU environment ministers reach a political agreement on entire “Climate Act”’. 18 December. https://agenceurope.eu/en/bulletin/article/12625/1, accessed 20 September 2022.

  • Agence Europe (2021) ‘Interinstitutional negotiations on Climate Law are stalled’. 2 February. https://agenceurope.eu/en/bulletin/article/12649/10, accessed 20 September 2022.

  • Amnesty International (2016) ‘This is what we die for: Human rights abuses in the Democratic Republic of Congo power the global trade in cobalt’. https://www.amnesty.org/en/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/AFR6231832016ENGLISH.pdf, accessed 6 October 2022.

  • Assous, A., T. Burns, B. Tsang, D. Vangenechten and B. Schäpe (2021) ‘A storm in a teacup: Impacts and geopolitical risks of the European Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism’. E3G Report. August.

  • Bach, D. and A. L. Newman (2007) ‘The European regulatory state and global public policy: Micro-institutions, macro-influence’. Journal of European Public Policy, 14(6): 827–846.

  • Balzacq, T. (2010) ‘Constructivism and securitisation studies’. In M. D. Cavelty and V. Mauer (eds), The Routledge Handbook of Security Studies. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 56–72.

  • Bankwatch (2019) ‘The Southern Gas Corridor’. https://bankwatch.org/project/southern -gas-corridor-euro-caspian-mega-pipeline, accessed 14 September 2022.

  • Barnett, M. and R. Duvall (2005) ‘Power in international politics’. International Organization, 59(1): 39–75.

  • Bazilian, M., M. Bradshaw, J. Gabriel, A. Goldthau and K. Westphal (2020) ‘Four scenarios of the energy transition: Drivers, consequences, and implications for geopolitics’. WIREs Climate Change, 11(2), https://wires.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/wcc.625.

  • Belyi, A. (2015) Transnational Gas Markets and Euro-Russian Energy Relations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Bertacche, M. and F. Rotondi (2022) ‘Italy’s push to create greener cities led to $5 billion in fraud’. Bloomberg, 23 February. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2022–02–23/energy-efficiency-program-led-to-fraud-in-rome-milan, accessed 23 January 2023.

  • Bhattacharjya, S. (2021) ‘The EU “Green Deal”: An opportunity to strengthen EU–India relationship’. MDPD Papers. https://www.kas.de/documents/272317/12679503/The+EU+%E2%80%9CGreen+Deal%E2%80%9D+-+An+opportunity+to+strengthen+EU-India+relationship.pdf/, accessed 28 September 2022.

  • Blank, S. and Y. Kim (2016) ‘Economic warfare à la Russe: The energy weapon and Russian national security strategy’. Journal of East Asian Affairs, 30(1): 1–39.

  • Bloomberg (2022) ‘War is raging, but Russia is still paying Ukraine for gas flows’, 22 March. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2022–03–22/war-is-raging-but-russia-is-still-paying-ukraine-for-gas-flows, accessed 17 January 2023.

  • Bocse, A. (2020) ‘The UK’s decision to leave the European Union (Brexit) and its impact on the EU as a climate change actor’. Climate Policy, 20(2): 265–274.

  • Boersma, T. and A. Goldthau, A. (2017) ‘Wither the EU’s market making project in energy: From liberalization to securitization?’ In S. S. Andersen et al. (eds), Energy Union: Europe’s New Liberal Mercantilism? Basingstoke: Palgrave, pp. 99–113.

  • Bouckley, E. (2020) ‘Russia aims to supply 3.5% of world’s lithium by mid-decade’. S&P Global, 25 September. https://www.spglobal.com/commodityinsights/en/market-insights/latest-news/metals/092520-russia-aims-to-supply-35-of-worlds-lithium-by-mid-decade, accessed 17 October 2022.

  • Broers, L. (2016) ‘The Nagorny Karabakh conflict: Defaulting to war’. Chatham House, 11 July.

  • Brooks, E. and R. Geyer (2020) ‘The development of EU health policy and the Covid-19 pandemic: Trends and implications’. Journal of European Integration, 42(8): 1057–1076.

  • Bruegel (2023) European Natural Gas Imports. https://www.bruegel.org/dataset/europ ean-natural-gas-imports, accessed 29 January 2023.

  • Buchan, D. (2014) Europe’s Energy Security – Caught between Short-term Needs and Long-term Goals, Oxford Energy Comment. Oxford: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.

  • Buzan, B., O. Wæver and J. de Wilde (1998) Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

  • Carrington, D. (2014) ‘UK defeats European bid for fracking regulations’. The Guar-dian, 14 January.

  • Carter, D. (2023) ‘Europe continues to import large amounts of Russian LNG’. The Bru- ssels Times, 11 January. https://www.brusselstimes.com/349852/europe-continues -to-import-large-amounts-of-russian-lng, accessed 25 January 2023.

  • Casier, T. (2011) ‘The rise of energy to the top of the EU–Russia agenda: From interdependence to dependence?’ Geopolitics, 16(3): 536–552.

  • Casier, T. (2016) ‘Great game or great confusion: The geopolitical understanding of EU–Russia energy relations’. Geopolitics 21(4): 763–778.

  • Chandrasekhar, A., D. Dunne, J. Gabbatiss, J. Goodman, S. Evans and Z. Zhang (2022) ‘COP27: Key outcomes agreed at the UN climate talks in Sharm el-Sheikh’, Carbon Brief, 21 November 2022. https://www.carbonbrief.org/cop27-key-outcomes-agreed-at-the-un-climate-talks-in-sharm-el-sheikh/, accessed 23 January 2023.

  • Chazan, G. and J. Shotter (2013) ‘TAP clinches Azeri gas pipeline deal’. Financial Times, 26 June.

  • Conti, I. and J. Kneebone (2022) ‘A first look at REPowerEU: The European Comm-ission’s plan for energy independence from Russia’. Florence School of Regulation, 19 May. https://fsr.eui.eu/first-look-at-repowereu-eu-commission-plan-for-energy-independence-from-russia/, accessed 23 January 2023.

  • Cook, C. and D. Sheppard (2022) ‘Russian crude being shipped to India under G7 price cap’. Financial Times, 16 December. https://www.ft.com/content/41237fe7–210d-406c-a22a-2e17a79f7381, accessed 23 January 2023.

  • Cook, C. and D. Sheppard (2023) ‘Iran’s “ghost fleet” switches into Russian oil’. Fin- ancial Times, 7 February. https://www.ft.com/content/955389bf-d01b-4acb-bd15-b 764425a8a18, accessed 23 February 2023.

  • Crisp, J. (2015a) ‘Commission’s fracking advisors controlled by lobbyists, claim NGOs’. Euractiv, 16 April.

  • Crisp, J. (2015b) ‘Leak names ACER as Energy Union supervisor’. Euractiv, 26 February.

  • Damro, C. (2012) ‘Market power Europe’. Journal of European Public Policy, 19(5): 682–699.

  • De Waal, T. (2021) ‘Unfinished business in the Armenia–Azerbaijan conflict’. Carnegie, 11 February.

  • Dickel, R., E. Hassanzadeh, J. Henderson, A. Honoré, L. El-Katiri, S. Pirani, H. Rogers, J. Stern and K. Yafimava (2014) ‘Reducing European dependence on Russian gas: Distinguishing natural gas security from geopolitics’. OIES Paper 92. Oxford: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.

  • Duchêne, F. (1972) ‘Europe’s role in world peace’. In Mayne, R. (ed.), Europe Tomorrow: Sixteen Europeans Look Ahead. London: Fontana.

  • Dupont, C., S. Oberthür and I. von Homeyer (2020) ‘The Covid-19 crisis: A critical juncture for EU climate policy development?’ Journal of European Integration, 42(8): 1095–1110.

  • DW (2019) ‘Russia, China launch giant pipeline project’. https://www.dw.com/en/russia-china-launch-gas-pipeline-power-of-siberia/a-51500187, accessed 5 January 2023.

  • DW (2022) ‘Germany extends lifetime of remaining nuclear plants’. 17 October. https://www.dw.com/en/germany-extends-lifetime-of-all-3-remaining-nuclear-plants/a-63466196, accessed 24 January 2023.

  • Eckes, C., Main-Klingst, L. and Schaugg, L. (2023) ‘Why a coordinated withdrawal from the Energy Charter Treaty is inevitable’. Euractiv, 24 January. https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/opinion/why-a-coordinated-withdrawal-from-the-energy-charter-treaty-is-inevitable/, accessed 30 January 2023.

  • Edwardes-Evans, H. (2022) ‘EU parliament votes in favour of gas, nuclear inclusion in sustainable finance taxonomy’. 6 July. https://www.spglobal.com/commodityinsights/en/market-insights/latest-news/electric-power/070622-eu-parliament-votes-in-favor-of-gas-nuclear-inclusion-in-sustainable-finance-taxonomy, accessed 23 January 2023.

  • EEAS (European External Action Service) (2016) ‘European Neighbourhood Policy’. European External Action Service, 21 December. Available at https://www.eeas.europa.eu/eeas/european-neighbourhood-policy_en#:~:text=The%20European%20Neighbourhood%20Policy%20(ENP,their%20mutual%20benefit%20and%20interest, accessed 14 September 2022.

  • Ellis Petersen, H. (2021) ‘India criticised over coal at Cop26 – but real villain was climate injustice’. The Guardian, 14 November. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/nov/14/india-criticised-over-coal-at-cop26-but-real-villain-was-climate-injustice, accessed on 28 September 2022.

  • Entous, A., J. Barnes and A. Goldman (2023) ‘Intelligence suggests pro-Ukrainian group sabotaged pipelines, U.S. officials say’. New York Times, 7 March. https://www.nytimes.com/2023/03/07/us/politics/nord-stream-pipeline-sabotage-ukraine.html, 9 March 2023.

  • Eur-Lex (2021) ‘Regulation (EU) 2021/1119 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 June 2021 establishing the framework for achieving climate neutrality and amending Regulations (EC) No 401/2009 and (EU) 2018/1999’ (‘European Climate Law’). 9 July. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32021R1119, accessed 23 January.

  • Euractiv (2020) ‘EU’s next top climate model under scrutiny’. 5 March. https://www.euractiv.com/section/climate-environment/news/eus-next-top-climate-model-under-scrutiny/, accessed 19 September 2022.

  • European Commission (2014) ‘Member states’ energy dependence: An indicator-based assessment’. Occasional Paper 196, Brussels.

  • European Commission (2015) ‘A framework strategy for a resilient Energy Union with a forward-looking climate change policy’. Brussels, COM (2015) 080 final.

  • European Commission (2018) ‘Antitrust: Commission imposes binding obligations on Gazprom to enable free flow of gas at competitive prices in Central and Eastern European gas markets’. Press release, 24 May. https://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-18–3921_en.htm, accessed 17 January 2023.

  • European Commission (2019a) ‘Clean energy for all Europeans package’. https://energy.ec.europa.eu/topics/energy-strategy/clean-energy-all-europeans-package_en

  • European Commission (2019b) ‘The European Green Deal’. COM(2019) 640 final, 11 December.

  • European Commission (2019c) ‘Quarterly report energy on European gas markets 4/2018’.

  • European Commission (2020a) ‘Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing the Just Transition Fund’. COM(2020) 22 final, 14 January.

  • European Commission (2020b) ‘Europe’s moment: Repair and prepare for the next generation’. COM(2020) 456 final, 27 May.

  • European Commission (2020c) ‘Stepping up Europe’s 2030 climate ambition: Investing in a climate-neutral future for the benefit of our people’. COM(2020) 562 final, 17 September.

  • European Commission (2020d) ‘Amended proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on establishing the framework for achieving climate neutrality and amending Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 (European Climate Law)’. COM(2020) 563 final, 17 September.

  • European Commission (2020e) ‘EU–US: A new transatlantic agenda for global cha-nge’. 2 December. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2279, accessed 28 September 2022.

  • European Commission (2020f) ‘A hydrogen strategy for a climate-neutral Europe’. 8 July. https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/hydrogen_strategy.pdf, accessed 6 October 2022.

  • European Commission (2021a) ‘The Global Gateway’. 1 December. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:52021JC0030, accessed 6 October 2022.

  • European Commission (2021b) ‘EU–US Trade and Technology Council inaugural joint statement’. 29 September. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/statement_21_4951, accessed 17 October 2022.

  • European Commission (2021c) ‘“Fit for 55”: delivering the EU’s 2030 Climate Target on the way to climate neutrality’. COM(2021) 550 final, 14 July.

  • European Commission (2022a) ‘EU–Africa: Global Gateway Investment Package’. 18 February. https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019–2024/stronger-eur-ope-world/global-gateway/eu-africa-global-gateway-investment-package_en, accessed on 28 September 2022.

  • European Commission (2022b) ‘Critical Raw Materials Act: securing the new gas & oil at the heart of our economy’. Press Statement by Commissioner Thierry Breton, 14 September 2022. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/STATEMENT_22_5523, accessed on 15 November 2022.

  • European Commission (2022c) ‘Critical raw materials’. https://single-market-economy.ec.europa.eu/sectors/raw-materials/areas-specific-interest/critical-raw-materials_en, accessed on 15 November 2022.

  • European Commission (2022d) ‘REPowerEU Plan’. COM(2022) 230 final, 18 May. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:52022DC0230&from=EN, accessed 23 January 2023.

  • European Commission (2022e) ‘REPowerEU: Joint European Action for more affordable, secure and sustainable energy’. COM/2022/108 final, 8 March. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=COM%3A2022%3A108%3AFIN, accessed 23 January 2023.

  • European Commission (2022f) ‘EU “Save Energy”’. COM(2022) 240 final, 18 May. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:52022DC0240&from=EN, accessed 24 January 2023.

  • European Commission (2022g) ‘EU external energy engagement in a changing world’. JOIN(2022) 23 final, 18 May. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:52022JC0023&from=EN, accessed 24 January 2023.

  • European Commission (2023a) ‘New reports highlight 3rd quarter impact of gas supply cuts’. 13 January. https://energy.ec.europa.eu/news/new-reports-highlight-3rd-quarter-impact-gas-supply-cuts-2023–01–13_en, accessed on 23 February 2023.

  • European Commission (2023b) ‘Commission sets out rules for renewable hydrogen’. 13 February. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_23_594, acc-essed 5 March 2023.

  • European Commission (2023c) ‘The Green Deal Industrial Plan: putting Europe’s net-zero industry in the lead’. 1 February. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_23_510, accessed 5 March 2023.

  • European Commission (2023d) ‘State aid: Commission consults Member States on proposal for a Temporary Crisis and Transition Framework’. 1 February. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_23_513, accessed 5 March 2023.

  • European Council (2014) ‘Council conclusions’. 23–24 October. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/145397.pdf, accessed 10 March 2023.

  • European Council (2020) ‘European Council meeting (10 and 11 December 2020) – Conclusions’.

  • European Council (2021a) Interinstitutional file (No. 2020/0036), 5 May. https://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-8440–2021-INIT/en/pdf, accessed 19 September 2022.

  • European Council (2021b) ‘Fit for 55’. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/green-deal/fit-for-55-the-eu-plan-for-a-green-transition/, accessed 25 September 2022.

  • European Council (2023) ‘EU sanctions against Russia explained’. https://www.cons ilium.europa.eu/en/policies/sanctions/restrictive-measures-against-russia-over-ukraine/sanctions-against-russia-explained/, accessed 23 January 2023.

  • European Parliament (2020) ‘Non-paper on the choice of delegated acts to set out the trajectory for achieving climate neutrality in the proposal for a European Climate Law (No. 2020/0036(COD))’.

  • Eurostat (2018) ‘Main origin of primary energy imports, EU-28’. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=File:Main_origin_of_primary_energy_imports,_EU-28,_2006–2016_(%25_of_extra_EU-28_imports).png&oldid=398029, accessed 5 January 2023.

  • Eurostat (2022a) ‘EU energy mix and import dependency’. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=EU_energy_mix_and_import_dependency#Energy_mix_and_import_dependency, accessed 8 February 2023.

  • Eurostat (2022b) ‘EU’s CO2 footprint continues to decrease’. 24 May. https://ec.eur-opa.eu/eurostat/web/products-eurostat-news/-/ddn-20220524–1, accessed 11 March 2023.

  • Eurostat (2023) ‘Renewable energy statistics’. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Renewable_energy_statistics#Share_of_renewable_energy_more_than_doubled_between_2004_and_2021, accessed 30 January 2023.

  • Eyl-Mazzega, M. (2018) The Gazprom–Naftogaz Stockholm Arbitration Awards: Time for Settlements and Responsible Behaviour. Paris: IFRI.

  • FAZ (Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung) (2019) ‘Altmaier opfert Start-ups im Urheberrecht’. 25 March.

  • Feng, Q., H. Ma, X. Jiang, X. Wang and S. Cao (2015) ‘What has caused desertification in China?’ Nature, Scientific Reports 5. https://www.nature.com/articles/srep15998, accessed 28 September 2022.

  • Fleming, S., A. Bounds, R. Milne, S. White, G. Chazan and B. Jopson (2022) ‘European industry pivots to US as Biden subsidy sends “dangerous signal”’. Financial Times, 20 November. https://www.ft.com/content/59a8d135–3477–4d0a-8d12–20c7ef94be07, accessed 23 November 2022.

  • Flues, F. and A. Simon (2013) A Slow Costly Road to Nowhere: Shale Gas Development in Europe. Brussels: Friends of the Earth Europe.

  • Forsberg, T. (2013) ‘The power of the European Union: What explains the EU’s (lack of) influence on Russia?’ Politique européenne, 39(1), March.

  • Forsberg, T. and H. Haukkala (2016) The European Union and Russia Relations. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

  • Foy, H. et al. (2022) ‘G7 countries back price cap on Russian oil’. Financial Times, 2 September. https://www.ft.com/content/81e74eb3-c191–4391–8e0a-35a93dc8d971, accessed 23 January 2023.

  • Fuchs, R., C. Brown and M. Rounsevell (2020) ‘Europe’s Green Deal offshores environmental damage to other nations’. Nature, 26 October.

  • Fulwood, M., A. Honoré and J. Sharples (2022) ‘REPowerEU and the short-term outlook for the European gas market’. Oxford Energy Comment, July.

  • Fulwood, M., J. Sharples, J. Stern and K. Yafimava (2022) ‘The curious incident of the Nord Stream gas turbine’. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, July.

  • Gafarli, O. (2015) ‘Could Russia have had a role in recent PKK attacks on Turkish pipelines?’ Eurasia Daily Monitor, 12/170.

  • Gardner, T. (2022) ‘Russia’s energy revenue higher now than just before Ukraine war’. Reuters, 9 June. https://www.reuters.com/business/energy/russia-energy-revenue- may-be-higher-now-than-before-ukraine-war-us-official-says-2022–06–09/, acces- sed 23 January 2023.

  • Gazprom (2019) ‘Delivery statistics’. http://www.gazpromexport.ru/en/statistics/, acc-essed 8 November 2019.

  • General Court of the EU (2019) ‘Judgment in Case T-883/16 Poland v Commission, Luxembourg’. Press release No. 107/19, 10 September 2019. https://curia.europa.eu/jcms/upload/docs/application/pdf/2019–09/cp190107en.pdf, accessed 17 January 2023.

  • Gera, V. (2020) ‘Poland, Hungary veto EU budget over rule-of-law issue’. AP, 16 November. https://apnews.com/article/budapest-viktor-orban-angela-merkel-pol-and-coronavirus-pandemic-679affe987f65160e89b257884e1cd2b, accessed 19 September 2022.

  • German Foreign Office (2017) Press release, 15 June. https://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/en/newsroom/news/170615-kern-russland/290666, accessed 17 January 2023.

  • Godzimirski, J. (ed.) (2019). New Political Economy of Energy in Europe: Power to Project, Power to Adapt. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

  • Goldthau, A. and L. Hughes (2020) ‘Protect global supply chains for low-carbon technologies’. Nature, 2 September. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586–020–02499–8, accessed 25 January 2022.

  • Goldthau, A. and N. Sitter (2014) ‘A liberal actor in a realist world? The Commission and the external dimension of the single market for energy’. Journal of European Public Policy, 21(10): 1452–1472.

  • Goldthau, A. and N. Sitter (2015) ‘Soft power with a hard edge: EU policy tools and energy security’. Review of International Political Economy, 22(5): 941–965.

  • Goldthau, A. and N. Sitter (2019) ‘Regulatory or market power Europe? EU leadership models for international energy governance’. In J. Godzimirski (ed.), New Political Economy of Energy in Europe: Power to Project, Power to Adapt. Basingstoke: Palgrave, pp. 27–47.

  • Goldthau, A., L. Eicke and S. Weko (2020) ‘The global energy transition and the global south’. In M. Hafner and S. Tagliapietra (eds), The Geopolitics of the Global Energy Transition. Berlin: Springer, pp. 319–339.

  • Gora, A. and P. de Wilde (2020) ‘The essence of democratic backsliding in the European Union: Deliberation and rule of law’. Journal of European Public Policy, 29(3): 342–362.

  • Gorska, J. A. (2010) Dealing with a Juggernaut: Analyzing Poland’s Policy Toward Russia, 1989–2009. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield.

  • Gotev, G. (2018) ‘Conte tells Italian rebel village he is unable to stop TAP pipeline’. Euractiv, 31 October.

  • Greens/EFA (2019) ‘Greens/EFA Group voted against Ursula von der Leyen’. Press release. https://www.greens-efa.eu/en/article/press/greens-efa-group-voted-against-ursula-von-der-leyen, accessed 19 September 2022.

  • Grigoroudis, E., V. S. Kouikoglou, Y. Phillis and F. D. Kanellos (2021) ‘Energy sustainability: A definition and assessment model’. Operational Research, 21: 1845–1885.

  • Grimm, S., N. Helwig, W. Rainers and M. Siddi (2021) ‘Leadership and partnerships for the European Green Deal: EU relations with (re)emerging economies’. L’Europe en Formation, 393: 40–63.

  • Gromov, A. and N. Kurichev (2014) ‘The Energy Strategy up to 2030’. In S. Oxenstierna and V. P. Tynkkynen (eds.), Russian Energy and Security up to 2030. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 16–40.

  • Gurzu, A. (2019) ‘Nord Stream 2: Who fared best’. Politico, 13 February. https://www.politico.eu/article/the-winners-and-losers/, accessed 17 January 2023.

  • Gustafson, T. (2020) The Bridge: Natural Gas in a Redivided Europe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Gustafson, T. (2021) Klimat. Russia in the Age of Climate Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Hadfield, A. (2008a) ‘Energy and foreign policy: EU–Russia energy dynamics’. In S. Smith, A. Hadfield and T. Dunne (eds), Foreign Policy: Theories, Actors, Cases. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 451–475.

  • Hadfield, A. (2008b) ‘EU–Russia energy relations: Aggregation and aggravation’. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 16(2): 231–248.

  • Hancock, A. (2023) ‘EU clean tech draft plan sets 40% production target’. Financial Times, 4 March. https://www.ft.com/content/c6779a7f-9f0b-47b8–87c6–4ad7031b75a8, accessed 6 March 2023.

  • Hecking, H. and F. Weiser (2017) Impacts of Nord Stream 2 on the EU Natural Gas Market. Cologne: Institute of Energy Economics.

  • Heidbreder, E. and D. Schade (2020) ‘(Un)settling the precedent: Contrasting institutionalisation dynamics in the Spitzenkandidaten procedure of 2014 and 2019’. Research and Politics, 7(2): 1–6.

  • Heinrich, A. and Szulecki, K. (2018) ‘Energy securitisation: Applying the Copenhagen School’s framework to energy’. In K. Szulecki (ed.), Energy Security in Europe: Divergent Perceptions and Policy Challenges. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

  • Henderson, J. (2022) ‘The Road to COP27 – key milestones and objectives’. In Key Themes for the Global Energy Economy in 2022. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, pp. 19–20.

  • Henderson, J. and T. Mitrova (2020) ‘Implications of the global energy transition on Russia’. In M. Hafner and S. Tagliapietra (eds), The Geopolitics of the Global Energy Transition, Berlin: Springer, pp. 193–214.

  • Henderson, J. and J. Sharples (2018) Gazprom in Europe – Two ‘Anni Mirabiles’, but Can it Continue? Oxford: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.

  • Herranz-Surrallés, A. (2016) ‘An emerging EU energy diplomacy? Discursive shifts, enduring practices’. Geopolitics, 23(9): 1386–1405.

  • Hersh, S. (2023) ‘How America took out the Nord Stream pipeline’. 8 February. https://seymourhersh.substack.com/p/how-america-took-out-the-nord-stream, accessed 13 April 2023.

  • Högselius, P. (2013). Red Gas: Russia and the Origins of European Energy Dependence. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

  • Honoré, A. (2018) Natural Gas Demand in Europe in 2017 and Short Term Expectations. Oxford: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.

  • Hook, L. (2021) ‘John Kerry warns EU against carbon border tax’. Financial Times, 12 March. https://www.ft.com/content/3d00d3c8–202d-4765-b0ae-e2b212bbca98, accessed 27 September 2022.

  • Hook, L. and J. Politi (2021) ‘US to propose emissions cut of at least 50 percent by end of decade’. Financial Times, 22 April. https://www.ft.com/content/32f5e2cd-4689–4434–9da0-d97d46673eaf, accessed 20 September 2022.

  • Horowitz, J. (2022) ‘Europe’s scorching summer puts unexpected strain on energy supply’. New York Times, 18 August. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/08/18/world/europe/drought-heat-energy.html, accessed 23 January 2023.

  • Interfax Ukraine (2018) ‘Ukraine sees 13.7% rise in gas transit in 2017’. 2 January. https://en.interfax.com.ua/news/economic/474366.html, accessed 5 January 2023.

  • IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2021) ‘Climate change – The physical science basis: Summary for policymakers’. https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg1/downloads/report/IPCC_AR6_WGI_SPM_final.pdf, accessed 6 October 2022.

  • Isachenkov, A. (2019) ‘Russia, Ukraine finalize deals for gas transit to Europe’. AP, 31 December. https://apnews.com/4615057928c343afb421a24cdd0bedf1, accessed 17 January 2023.

  • Judge, A., T. Maltby and J. Sharples (2016) ‘Challenging reductionism in analyses of EU–Russia energy relations’. Geopolitics, 21(4): 751–762.

  • Kalantzakos, S. (2020) ‘The race for critical minerals in an era of geopolitical realignments’. The International Spectator, 55(3): 1–16.

  • Kardas, S. (2011) ‘Geo-strategic position as leverage in EU accession: The case of Turkish–EU negotiations on the Nabucco pipeline’. Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 11(1): 35–52.

  • Karjalainen, T. (2022) ‘EU Global Gateway: Building connectivity as a policy’. FIIA Working Paper 127.

  • Kaveshnikov, N. (2010) ‘The issue of energy security in relations between Russia and the European Union’. European Security, 19(4): 585–605.

  • Keating, D. (2015) ‘Orbán criticises Commission’s plan for Energy Union’. European Voice, 23 February.

  • Kemfert, C., F. Präger, I. Braunger, F. M. Hoffart and H. Brauers (2022) ‘The expansion of natural gas infrastructure puts energy transitions at risk’. Nature Energy, 7, 582–587.

  • Khan, M. and J. Brunsden (2020) ‘Dumping Europe’s green ideals’. Financial Times, 3 April. https://www.ft.com/content/2c44c927-f007–4fbd-8b20–4d467c45a0c2, accessed 20 September 2022.

  • Kinkartz, S. (2022) ‘Germany’s energy U-turn: Coal instead of gas’. DW, 4 August. https://www.dw.com/en/germanys-energy-u-turn-coal-instead-of-gas/a-62709160, accessed 23 January 2023.

  • Klare, M. T. (2009) Rising Powers, Shrinking Planet. The New Geopolitics of Energy. New York: Holt Paperbacks.

  • Kleimann, D., N. Poitiers, A. Sapir, S. Tagliapietra, N. Véron, R. Veugelers and J. Zettelmeyer (2023) ‘How Europe should answer the US Inflation Reduction Act’. Bruegel Policy Brief, 23 February. https://www.bruegel.org/policy-brief/how-europe-should-answer-us-inflation-reduction-act, accessed 5 March 2023.

  • Kneebone, J. (2021) ‘Fit for 55: EU rolls out largest ever legislative package in pursuit of climate goals’. Florence School of Regulation, 14 July. https://fsr.eui.eu/fit-for-55-eu-rolls-out-largest-ever-legislative-package-in-pursuit-of-climate-goals/, accessed 20 September 2022.

  • Knops, L. (2021) ‘Stuck between the modern and the terrestrial: The indignation of the youth for climate movement’. Political Research Exchange, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/2474736X.2020.1868946.

  • Krickovic, A. (2015) ‘When interdependence produces conflict: EU–Russia energy relations as a security dilemma’. Contemporary Security Policy, 36(1): 3–26.

  • Krzyzanowski, M. (2010) The Discursive Construction of European Identities: A Multi-Level Approach to Discourse and Identity in the Transforming European Union. Bern: Peter Lang.

  • Kulovesi, K. (2017) ‘EU Emissions Trading Scheme: Preventing carbon leakage before and after the Paris Agreement’. In R. Leal-Arcas (ed.), Research Handbook on EU Energy Law and Policy. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 417–431.

  • Kuzemko, C. (2014) ‘Ideas, power and change: Explaining EU–Russia energy relations’. Journal of European Public Policy, 21(1): 58–75.

  • Kuzemko, C., M. Blondel, C. Dupont and M. C. Bribois (2022) ‘Russia’s war on Ukraine, European energy policy responses and implications for sustainable transformations’. Energy Research and Social Science, 93. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214629622003450.

  • Kuzemko, C., M. F. Keating and A. Goldthau (2015) The Global Energy Challenge: Environment, Development and Security. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Kyllmann, C. (2022) ‘Nord Stream gas pipeline leaks lead to “significant climate damage” – environment agency’. Clean Energy Wire, 29 September. https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/nord-stream-gas-pipeline-leaks-lead-significant-climate-damage-environment-agency, accessed 8 March 2023.

  • Lang, K. and K. Westphal (2017) ‘Nord Stream 2 – A political and economic contextualization’. SWP Research Paper 3. Berlin: Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik.

  • Lau, S. (2022) ‘China suspends climate talks with US’. Politico, 5 August. https://www.politico.eu/article/china-suspends-climate-talks-with-us/, accessed 23 November 2022.

  • Lee, M. (2023) ‘A global mystery: What’s known about Nord Stream explosions’. AP News, 8 March. https://apnews.com/article/us-germany-russia-denmark-ukraine-gas-pipeline-attack-nord-stream-2561f98ba6462db700f7609352a28c24, accessed 9 March 2023.