“Sport has the power to change the world.” Nelson Mandela made this observation in the context of South Africa hosting the 1995 Rugby World Cup. Although the combined revenues of professional and collegiate sports cannot match those of a single large retailer, the outcome is reversed when considering the consumer time and media attention devoted to sports. Chapter 1 examines the size and source of this outsized intangible value and why fans still complain about the Dodgers move to Los Angeles 60 years after the act or why one out of every seven people on the planet watched the 2014 FIFA World Cup final. The answers are multi-layered, owing to the durable quality of sports consumption, the role that consumers play as team members, and very deep-seated connections that people make with competition.
This first chapter on what legal reasoning has been focuses on the medieval Italian jurists and their glosses and commentaries on Roman law. The argument is that it is the reasoning processes of these jurists that formed the direct historical basis for several particular characteristics of legal reasoning as it is today. The chapter discusses in some depth the dialectical and hermeneutical methods of these jurists and the use of divisio and distinctiones in order to solve both contradictions within the Roman sources themselves and the mass of factual problems and disputes that were relevant to the medieval period. The epistemological impact on legal thought of Aristotle’s rediscovered writings is also noted, as are the political and social issues which were theorised through the use of Roman law concepts.
This chapter, based mainly on a variety of French archives, focuses on the migratory experiences of Armenian children who survived the 1915–1916 genocide. It aims to show, through a number of key issues, how their itineraries defy any attempt to build straightforward typologies. The term “migration” itself cannot do justice to the sheer ruthlessness of the series of forced displacements, abductions, escapes and so on to which they were subjected during the genocide. It covers only partially the movements imposed on children just after the war: transfers towards secured zones, professional placements, protracted quests for lost relatives. Nonetheless one word – orphan – ties a link between these variegated trajectories.
This chapter provides a brief introduction to the notion of self-determination. Which minority groups are entitled to self-determine their fate, under which circumstances, and toward which goals? This chapter will first discuss the definition of the term “people,” as the right to self-determination purposely excludes all minority groups and only extends to those that qualify as “peoples.” Next, it will describe the evolution of the self-determination idea, from the colonial era and the idea that colonized peoples ought to be able to govern themselves freely, to the modern-day noncolonial application of self-determination, whereby oppressed minority groups are deemed to have the right to govern themselves free of the abusive reign of their mother state. Finally, the chapter will also distinguish between the ideas of internal and external self-determination, and will describe the different forms of self-determination existing around the globe, which include provincial, cultural, social, and/or political autonomy; free association; trusteeships; protectorates; and so on.
Bart J. Bronnenberg
Retailing is an important sector of the economy: it is roughly equal in size to the manufacturing sector, and still expanding in many countries. Why do economies have such a large retail sector and what does it produce? The chapter explores this question by looking at the retail sector through the lens of household production theory. It discusses how structural changes in consumers’ time allocation impact retail strategy, and conversely, how retail innovations that make purchasing and home production more convenient impact the purchasing habits and time use of consumers. In so doing, it connects the marketing literature on retailing to the economic literatures on household economics and on time use. The chapter also provides suggestions for future research into the role of consumer time use on innovation in retailing, and vice versa.
This chapter offers a general overview of policy-oriented research. The chapter’s main conclusion is that its effectiveness depends on the capability of recognising and (at the same time) overcoming boundaries between researchers and policymakers. The first section deals with the nature of policy analysis and the emergence of policy studies as a distinct field from political science. The second section identifies the ‘who’, i.e. the various actors who carry out policy analysis. The third section illustrates the ‘when’: using the stagist theory, it locates policy analysis within the different stages of the policy cycle. The fourth section proposes the ‘how’ of policy analysis, comparing it with fundamental research. The last section puts forward a list of ‘Ten Golden Rules’ for policy researchers.