This chapter extends the systems model of creativity by developing a theoretical construct, creative spirals, to explain an empirical phenomenon, moments of exceptional creative output. Creative spirals describe specific episodes in which collectives generate creative ideas that then foster subsequent creative ideas, resulting in a virtuous cycle of exceptional output. This causal relationship between creative ideas is captured in a detailed material and temporal analysis of the problems and solutions involved in Edison's development of a system of electric lighting. Analysis reveals the ascendant role of problem-creation in creative spirals, preceding and enabling the traditionally recognized activities of problem-definition and -solution. I discuss the value of sociomateriality and temporality as lenses for studying creative work in context and of microhistorical approaches for studying such episodic phenomena.
Yellowlees Douglas and Andrew Hargadon
Contrary to common views of innovations as being profoundly disruptive, the innovations that succeed are those that are evolutionary, not revolutionary. This chapter examines the way in which design domesticates innovation by nudging users incrementally into adopting new practices. In fact, most successful innovations introduce only moderate amounts of novelty, even drawing off features of older, now-obsolete technologies to frame our understandings of new products in terms of the products we are about to abandon. Even as the 1984 Apple Macintosh desktop made inroads toward rendering our paper files and desktops obsolete, its innovative operating system invoked files, file folders, a desktop, and a trash can. Good design domesticates novelty. However, once an innovation has gained acceptance, the purpose of design shifts toward differentiating between competing versions of the same underlying offerings. The best designs are robust enough to withstand the continuing cycle of domestication and differentiation, changing as technologies advance and users’ sophistication follows.
Bill Aulet, Andrew Hargadon, Luke Pittaway, Candida Brush and Sharon Alpi
One of the most commented on and, arguably, acclaimed, contributions of the last volume of USASBE’s Annals of Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy was the entry titled “What I’ve Learned About Teaching Entrepreneurship: Perspectives of Five Master Educators” authored by Jerome Engel, Minet Schindehutte, Heidi Neck, Ray Smilor, and Bill Rossi. Engel and colleagues took time to practice deep reflection on their experiences teaching entrepreneurship and then translated their learnings into deeply meaningful insights for the field to draw from. In planning this volume, the editors believed it was important to build upon this work, so we invited five new entrepreneurship educators to share what they have learned about teaching entrepreneurship. Again, we reached out to faculty members acknowledged by their peers, leading academic organizations, their institutions, and their students to be among the very best in entrepreneurship education. And again, each of these individuals has over a decade of experience in the entrepreneurship classroom and has witnessed the rapid evolution of a very dynamic discipline. In the pages that follow Bill Aulet, Andrew Hargadon, Luke Pittaway, Candida Brush, and Sharon Alpi share their reflections on decades of cumulative experience both inside and outside the classroom.