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Beatriz Huarte Melgar

Environmental targets for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are particularly relevant in the maritime sector because about 90 per cent of world trade is transported by sea, with maritime transport responsible for 2.5 per cent of total GHG emissions worldwide. In this regard, the European Union (EU), based on the IMO conventions, has developed a strategy, implemented since 2013, involving measures affecting the energy market to reduce GHG emissions within the maritime sector. It has also implemented an integrated maritime policy which covers areas as diverse as fishing, shipping and ports, marine environment, etc., and has promoted the use of the LNG for ships. Accordingly, this chapter aims at explaining how the EU implements energy measures to reduce GHG emissions from the shipping sector.