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Stian Stensland, Magnar Forbord, Knut Fossgard and Kristin Løseth

This chapter examines characteristics of nature-based tourism firms based on data from a national survey in Norway. Through cluster analysis we identify three types of firms: 1) Guided activity firms; 2) Hospitality facilitators that combine accommodation with angling and hunting license and self-guided activities; and 3) Activity package firms that offer comprehensive packages with combinations of activities, accommodation, food, and transport. Although there are many different motivations to be in the business (sustainability, lifestyle, economy, etc.) within and across the firm types, profit and growth are not among the main motivations. Typically, many of the firms are small (1-3 employees) and seasonal, located in rural areas with several sources of income. Few firms plan to increase the number of staff. From a tourism development perspective, governmental support programs and industry advisors should be aware of these specificities of nature-based tourism firms and the diversity in products they offer.

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Matthias Fuchs, Knut Fossgard, Stian Stensland and Tatiana Chekalina

In this chapter we reflect upon the notion of creativity as it is used in classical and neo-classical economics and by its ancient predecessors of economic thinking. After showing that contemporary economic science is incapable to grasp the nature of creativity, we sketch the elements of a post-mechanist economic theory (Brodbeck 2001; 2012). Moreover, after pointing at the potentially destructive consequences of innovations, the creativity consequences analytical framework (Kampylis & Valtanen 2010) is introduced. On this base, we are assessing the intentions behind and expected consequences of entrepreneurial activity in the Norwegian nature-based tourism sector. Findings gained from data of a nation-wide survey in 2017 reveal that the sector is dominated by life-style entrepreneurs characterized by motives and creative practices grounded on a fruitful combination of human and business-centred goals and a responsible use of local resources. Policy implications and an agenda for future research are outlined in the conclusions.

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Peter Fredman, Jan Vidar Haukeland, Liisa Tyrväinen, Stian Stensland and Sandra Wall-Reinius

This chapter provides an overview of nature-based tourism in a Nordic context, primarily looking at Norway, Sweden and Finland. Most of the world see the Nordic countries as a region characterized by common ideas and values like openness, trust and sustainability. The landscape includes iconic attractions with fjords, mountains and glaciers, as well as extensive forest and freshwater resources. Much of the region also share long traditions of outdoor recreation practices (friluftsliv) including the Right of Public Access which influence opportunities for nature-based tourism. This chapter provides a description of key characteristic of the Nordic region as a nature-based tourist destination. It covers the transformation from extractive and natural resource-based economies to service-oriented businesses through an emerging nature-based tourism sector. This includes the demand and supply of nature-based tourism product, relationship with nature protection, public access to nature and how to govern impacts from nature-based tourism.

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Stian Stensland, Øystein Aas, Hilde Nikoline Hambro Dybsand and Thrond O. Haugen

We surveyed three different Norwegian wildlife tourism experiences, and compare participant characteristics, motivations, degree of specialization, satisfaction and loyalty to the activity/destination among the groups. Data originate from surveys of birdwatchers, anglers and musk ox safari tourists. Birdwatchers were on average 55 years, and hence older than anglers and musk ox tourists. Anglers were mostly males (90 percent), compared to just above 50 percent for the two other groups. The importance of the activity for visiting the destination was high for all, but least important for anglers, and highest for birdwatchers. Birdwatchers and anglers were relatively specialized in the activity, while musk ox tourists were not specialized and could be considered novice generalists. Activity-specific motives were most important for those viewing birds and musk ox, while anglers scored lower on activity-specific items. Our results confirm that wildlife experiences vary in importance for different types of tourists, at different destinations and for different wildlife species.

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Knut Bjørn Stokke, Morten Clemetsen, Øystein Aas, Thrond O. Haugen, Stian Stensland and Thomas Haraldseid

This chapter assesses natural and cultural resources in development of nature-based tourism, by applying two different analytical frameworks: social-ecological systems (SES) and landscape resource analysis (LRA) in two case areas in Norway (birdwatching in Varanger, angling in Trysil). Analyses based on the SES framework have its strength in showing the central links and challenges among ecological, social and governance components when utilizing resources in nature-based tourism. LRA relies on qualitative data and local knowledge, particularly through sense of place analyses based on workshops with local participants. Applied to two case studies, the two analytical frameworks contribute to better understand and utilize resources in more sustainable ways in nature-based tourism. They also show how natural and cultural resources may supplement each other in these contexts. In order to link natural and cultural resources, in-depth knowledge about local relations to nature is necessary.