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Paul W. Grimes
Edited by Mathieu Winand and Christos Anagnostopoulos
Michael Mullan and Andrea Dertinger
Adaptation policy is being pursed among most of the world’s most economically developed nations. The common theme of these approaches has been the emphasis on mainstreaming adaptation, albeit with differences in countries’ approaches to achieving this goal. Does the existence of high general adaptive capacity actually translate into adaptation, and under what conditions? This chapter surveys adaptation policy among the member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which consists of 35 industrialized nations. It examines the state of progress across these countries, informed by a survey of member countries and the national evaluations that have been undertaken. The chapter also addresses the focus on adaptation in relation to sectoral priorities (such as the role of infrastructure protection versusother sectors).
Kristie L. Ebi and Kathryn J. Bowen
Climate variability and change are adversely affecting population health, increasing injuries, illnesses and deaths from a wide range of health outcomes that are sensitive to weather and climate. Adaptation is underway to increase the ability of individuals and health systems to prepare for and manage projected risks. However, current efforts focus more on incremental than transformative adaptation. Barriers and constraints include limited awareness, low levels of investment and insufficient consideration of projected risks with climate change. Despite this, there is substantial potential for adaptation policies and programmes to alleviate current global health challenges, and to do so in a way that also reduces health inequalities and increases resilience to the health risks of a changing climate. Scaling up the initiatives underway, and sharing lessons learned, could support policy and programmatic changes globally.
Debra Javeline and Sophia N. Chau
The vulnerability of ecosystems to climate change is in many ways intractable. Humans may intervene to protect ecosystems, but the persistence of the very anthropogenic activities that initially threatened the biosphere often thwarts progress. Long before the relatively recent concerns about climate change, efforts to protect ecosystems confronted anthropogenic threats such as land use change, deforestation, resource depletion, pollution and invasive species. Against this backdrop, the authors examine whether and how conservation policy addresses the added impacts of climate change. Their findings are mostly discouraging. Adaptation of ecosystems typically involves enhancing traditional conservation strategies such as protected areas, corridors and ex situ conservation, along with the occasional novel strategy such as the deliberate relocation of species. Finite space and resources along with relentless climate impacts restrict the application and effectiveness of available strategies. While there are notable conservation successes, adaptation policy _ to the extent that it exists _ has not contributed much to these successes, and natural systems continue to spiral toward mass extinction and ecosystem dysfunction.
Chase A. Sova and E. Lisa F. Schipper
Developing countries are in urgent need of adaptation planning due to their high vulnerability to climate change. In order to be effective in developing countries, adaptation must take place in conjunction with multiple, rapidly occurring processes of change. This includes existing development deficits, the changing landscape of development funding, and broader forces of globalization. This chapter seeks to outline what makes adaptation policy development and implementation unique in developing countries, explores the international policy instruments established in support of developing countries, and highlights examples of successful policy implementation in developing country settings. In doing so, the chapter addresses the constraints and opportunities for adaptation in developing countries including socio-economic, political and physical geography considerations.