In today’s global business environment, cross-border and cross-cultural knowledge management is one of the key drivers of organizational competitiveness. This chapter explores different roles IHRD plays in cross-border and cross-cultural knowledge management processes. The chapter starts with a discussion of how organizations develop and transfer their knowledge assets, and how knowledge shared is organized and facilitated. Next, the chapter explores how organizational knowledge is created, transferred, and shared in international and cross-cultural contexts. Finally, the challenges and opportunities for IHRD presented by the complex task of managing knowledge in global and international settings are set out.