Barbara Gray and Art Dewulf
We review the role of multistakeholder partnerships in responding to sustainability challenges. We refer to sustainability as achieving a balance between use and regeneration of resources, achieving quality of life now and in the future, while preserving ecological processes on which life depends (Gray & Stites, 2013). Partnerships are increasingly emerging as vehicles for confronting sustainability challenges across the globe that typically transcend sectors and governmental boundaries and implicate many different stakeholders whose actions impact each other. We draw on a systematic review of the management and public policy literatures (Gray & Stites, 2013) as well as additional research from specific problem domains to address four broad topics: 1) The challenges of sustainability and the affordances of partnerships as a response; 2) Types and purposes of sustainability partnerships; and 3) Obstacles to partnership success; and 4) Outcomes of sustainability partnerships. Overall, we argue that the more that partnerships seek to be transformational, the greater the challenges partners will confront as they try to shape a sustainable future. We conclude with future research questions that will enhance our knowledge of sustainability partnerships.
Ronald R. Callister, Barbara Gray, Donald E. Gibson, Maurice E. Schweitzer and Joo Seng Tan
Expressions of anger impact both individual and social outcomes. A single expression of anger can yield both positive and negative outcomes of conflict. We find that anger norms regarding the appropriateness of anger expressions play a critical role in moderating the consequences of anger expressions. We use a qualitative theory-building approach to examine anger expressions, norms, and outcomes across a range of organizations. We identify an anger context continuum (ACC): anger expression norms range from anger-suppression (expressions of anger are inappropriate) to anger-legitimating norms (expressions of anger are well accepted). Anger expression norms play a role in moderating the outcomes of anger expressions. Anger expressions yield positive outcomes, but this occurs less frequently in anger-suppression settings. However, in many organizations, display rules are implicit and inconsistent. In these situations many individuals import display rules from previous professional and personal experience. This study of anger norms and expressions provides insights to better understand conflict management.