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Giovanni Satta and Francesco Vitellaro

A cruise-port destination is a bundle of tangible and intangible assets (see the figure below) that transform a port into a cruise destination. Tangible assets include cruise terminal facilities, infrastructures and superstructures that make destinations accessible for both cruise ships (sea side) and cruise tourists (land side). In addition, the natural heritage (e.g., flora, fauna, beaches, seas, hills and mountains), as well as human-made constructions (e.g., buildings, roads, museums, theatres and markets) and other typical cultural highlights constitute pivotal tourist resources for any cruise-port destination. Intangible assets deal with the cultural heritage and the peculiarities of destinations. These include local customs and traditions, events, languages, food and beverage products, and all intangible resources that can enrich the overall service experience of the cruisers. The combination of tangible and intangible assets can stimulate the desire of tourists to buy a cruise and visit these port destinations. Therefore, the attractiveness of cruise-port destinations is strongly interrelated with the strategic decisions and success of cruise companies, especially when planning itineraries.
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Giovanni Satta, Francesco Parola, Enrico Musso and Francesco Vitellaro

Since the early 2000s, financial operators have been increasingly stimulated to seek new clients and additional investment opportunities in port infrastructures. Initially, they emerged as key players orchestrating big financial deals in the sector. Later on, they also became active investors in ports and related infrastructures. This chapter aims at identifying the intrinsic characteristics, objectives and global strategies of various types of financial operators, including investment banks, private equity funds, sovereign wealth funds and state-owned enterprises, pension funds and insurance companies, and investment holding companies, as well as multilateral financial institutions and development banks. In particular, by scrutinizing their strategic objectives and related implementation mechanisms, we focus on the temporal and spatial breakdown of their investments in cargo terminals and ports.