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Holly C Jonas

Indigenous peoples’ and community conserved territories and areas (ICCAs) are estimated to cover at least as much area as, if not more so than, the world’s state-designated protected areas, and under certain conditions they are more effective than state protected areas at preventing deforestation and conserving biodiversity. This chapter traces the recognition of ICCAs in international biodiversity law under the auspices of the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), including in relation to protected and conserved areas, financial mechanisms and resource mobilization, traditional knowledge and customary sustainable use, sustainable development, ecosystem conservation and restoration, climate change, agricultural biodiversity and taxonomy.
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Ria Guidone and Holly Jonas

This chapter sheds light on specific national ECT experiences, with a focus on the Asia-Pacific region. It further identifies advantages and disadvantages in developing specialized ECTs and lessons learned over the years. ECTs discussed include: (1) the Kenyan Land and Environmental Law Division of the Supreme Court (Green Bench); (2) the Canadian Ontario Environmental Review Tribunal (Independent Tribunal); (3) Sweden’s Regional Environmental Courts (Trial Court) & Environmental Court of Appeal (Appeal Court); (4) Australia’s Land and Environment Court of New South Wales (Appeal Court); (5) China’s Four-tiered Environmental Court System (Trial & Appeal Courts); (6) India’s National Green Tribunal (Independent Tribunal); and (7) the Republic of the Philippines’s 117 General Court Green Benches (Trial & Appellate). ECTs are revealed to play a role in achieving environmental governance, especially given their possibility for adaptation in accordance with the region’s needs.