The two main forms of migration to South Africa during the apartheid period – immigration from Europe and migrant labour from neighbouring states – have experienced consistent decline since 1990. At the same time, the numbers of foreign-born people in South Africa have continually increased, reaching over 2 million in 2011. To explain this apparent anomaly, this chapter examines various new forms of migration to South Africa that are generally associated with the globalization of population mobility. These include greatly increased general cross-border movement, skilled migration, forced migration, irregular migration and migration from crisis-states (especially Zimbabwe). The chapter uses various data sources to map these movements and then examines the South African policy response to each. The South African citizenry and state are ambiguous, at best, about these new forms of migration and have yet to develop policies that would maximize the benefits and minimize the drawbacks of globalized migration to this Southern hub.
Margaret Walton-Roberts, Jonathan Crush and Abel Chikanda
Diasporas are increasingly viewed as key development resources by sending and receiving states as well as international organizations such as the World Bank, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the Global Forum on Migration and Development. In many cases, financial remittances from migrant diasporas have surpassed official development aid and other forms of investment entering the Global South. Many migrant origin nations have turned to their diaspora communities in order to boost national development agendas. This chapter offers three critical research directions regarding the socio-spatial dimensions of diaspora engagement using policy, place and people as broad framings. In terms of policy, the authors caution against the policy orthodoxy employed by states examining their diaspora’s role in development. In terms of place, they draw attention to how diasporas are viewed as homogeneous extensions of the homeland, and when sensitivity to regional and other differences is embraced, it often becomes the basis for the material and discursive securitization of diaspora groups. Turning to people, the authors examine for whom the diaspora-development agenda is working, and reference the tendency for remittances to concentrate wealth in certain regions and for certain groups, with the potential to further embed forms of economic and spatial inequality. Building on these critical research framings the authors offer four cross-cutting issues that they argue are increasingly important to the analysis of diasporic formation, organization and influence: diasporas and the new economy; diasporas and information and communication technology; identity, gender and intersectionality; and lastly marginalization.
Jonathan Crush, Abel Chikanda, David Sanders and Belinda Maswikwa
South Africa is becoming an increasingly important global destination for medical tourists. Medical tourists fall into two main categories. First, there are conventional North-South medical tourists from Europe and North America who travel to access South Africa’s world-class private medical facilities. The country is marketed by medical tourism operators, facilitators and service providers as a cosmetic surgery destination with a related tourist experience (such as a game safari). It has also become a destination for fertility treatment and drug rehabilitation. More controversially, South Africa has also become a destination for (illegal) transplant and stem cell tourism. The second major category consists of South-South medical tourists from within Africa. In recent years, South Africa has become a destination for middle-class ‘medical tourists’ from other African countries. More important in numerical terms is the use of South Africa’s government-funded public healthcare facilities by medical tourists from neighbouring countries for a wide variety of health needs. This chapter provides an overview of these two major forms of medical tourism to South Africa.