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Cecilia M. Bailliet and Simon O’Connor

This chapter addresses the character of the obligations in the UN Charter with respect to the maintenance of international peace and security as articulated in Article 1(1), (2), and (3), and Chapters VI and VIII. This contribution discusses the sequential nature of the Charter to emphasize the obligations, first and foremost, to resolve disputes peacefully and prevent escalation. The chapter presents the framework of UN Bodies, including the Security Council, General Assembly, and office of the Secretary-General and their practice in implementing these obligations. Additionally, it underscores the importance of recourse to these fora in pursuing negotiations between States and non-State actors. Finally, it delineates the role of regional mechanisms in enabling States to fulfil their primary duty of pacific settlement. It concludes by examining whether future implementation should be strengthened within existing UN and regional institutions addressing the pacific settlement of disputes.

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J. Martinez-Alier and M. O’Connor

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Alan C. O'Connor, Albert N. Link, Brandon M. Down and Laura M. Hillier

The Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) allied to analyze the impact of their investments in medical imaging research. The CFI funds capital and operating programs for research infrastructure, and CIHR’s mandate concentrates its funding on research activity. It happens that CIHR funded research consumes CFI-funded infrastructure as an input in the innovation process. Apart from a few partnered programs, by design there is no coordination between CFI and CIHR funding decisions. Together, these agencies invested $916 million over a 14 year-period. In this paper, we evaluate the economic and health benefits from advancements in one funded area, namely computed tomography perfusion (CTP). CTP is an imaging technique that uses computed tomography to measure blood flow in organs and tissues. It is mostly used to assess acute ischemic stroke. The net social benefits attributable to these investments are substantially positive: the benefit-to-cost ratio is estimated to be between 6.66-to-1 and 9.99-to-1. We review how public investments from multiple funders comingle in the innovation process to deliver social value and improved health outcomes.