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Muhamad Ali

This chapter examines sermons (khutbah) and edicts (fatwa), and the extent to which colonial contexts shaped their characteristics and development in colonial Indonesia, particularly in South Sulawesi, and in Malaysia, notably Kelantan. The chapter provides an analysis of how various ulama (clergy) constructed sermons and edicts, what sources and languages they used, and what problems and issues they faced. In such an analysis, the flexibility of religious knowledge and the contending interpretations of the religious texts reveal some of the tensions, as well as the compromises, which characterise the production of such knowledge.