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Nadia Johanisova, Lucie Sovová and Eva Fraňková

This chapter focuses on alternative economies in a European post-socialist country, the Czech Republic, looking for transitions not towards, but beyond capitalism. After a brief historical excursion, the authors use the concept of eco-social enterprise and a five-dimensional, sliding-scale research framework to expand the EU social enterprise definition imported to post socialist-countries. The criteria include: 1. other-than-profit goals; 2. using profits to replenish nature and community; 3. democratic and localized governance and ownership; 4. rootedness in place and time; 5. non-market production, exchange and provisioning. Research has uncovered a heterogeneous group of entities including organic farms, community gardens, community cafés, a consumer cooperative, a municipally-owned shop, a community school, etc. Using brief illustrative case studies, the authors look at the varied traditions and diverse ideologies that shape and motivate current Czech eco-social enterprises.