This chapter introduces the method of Text Oriented Discourse Analysis (TODA) (Fairclough, 1992). It introduces the original approach and its theoretical, methodological, historical and political rationale. It then describes a research project performed on political discourse in Mexico, comparing the discourse of a former president and the counterhegemonic discourse of the Zapatista movement, which protested against the shift to a global economy, especially the installed free market treatment between Mexico, Canada and the USA (NAFTA). The approach draws on a Gramscian approach to hegemony and puts Discourse Theory (Laclau and Mouffe, 1985) and different strands of Critical Discourse Analysis together to develop and apply a new methodology to analyze (counter)hegemonic procedures in empirical data.
Nicolina Montesano Montessori
Jane Mulderrig, Nicolina Montesano Montessori and Michael Farrelly
This chapter makes a case for the added value of integrating Critical Discourse Analysis with Critical Policy Studies, producing a theoretical and methodological synergy we term ‘Critical Policy Discourse Analysis’ (CPDA). It lays the groundwork for the highly practical and method-focused chapters which follow. The intellectual origins and key theoretical assumptions of Critical Policy Studies and Critical Discourse Analysis are reviewed in order to reveal the conceptual underpinnings and complementarities which lead us to propose this integrated approach to policy research. The chapter examines some of the key concerns of post-positivist approaches to policy research, and demonstrates how CPDA is ideally suited to address them. It offers definitions of core concepts like text, discourse and interdiscursivity, before outlining how the remaining empirical chapters fit into this CPDA approach.
Michael Farrelly, Nicolina Montesano Montessori and Jane Mulderrig
This chapter reflects on the three aims of the volume: first, to show, conceptually, how an integration of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) with Critical Policy Studies (CPS) could enrich the analysis of policy discourse. Second, to set out, explicitly, the methodological steps taken in operationalising such an analysis, and, third, to reflect on the distinctive contribution made to both fields when applied to actual policy problems. It argues, first, that CPDA encourages and facilitates a relational analysis of policy; second, it emphasises the constitutive role of discourse in policy analysis; third, that CPDA encourages analysis of the context of policy discourse and of the mutually constitutive relationship which holds between them; and, fourth, that the CPDA approach encourages analysis of the connection between policy and power. It concludes that CPDA not only leads to better understanding of the investigated topic, but it also leads to a synergy in which theory informs the analysis, while the analysis informs theory.