Urban Gråsjö and Charlie Karlsson
Charlie Karlsson and Philippe Rouchy
Sierdjan Koster and Charlie Karlsson
Charlie Karlsson and Sam Tavassoli
The authors discuss the controversial area of industrial policy which, after the 2008 crisis, faced the reaction that markets do not always perform optimally for society, generating a demand for new policy models. The chapter shows how the views on industrial policy have changed from a long-term perspective, with a special focus on the post-war period up to the current post-industrial society. The authors argue that industrial policies should be placed at the regional level and that small- and medium-sized regions need different policies than do large urban regions. In addition, this chapter briefly evaluates the EU’s current approach to industrial policy – the so-called smart specialisation – and sheds light on the problems related to this policy initiative.