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Sierdjan Koster and Charlie Karlsson

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Charlie Karlsson and Kristina Nyström

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Urban Gråsjö and Charlie Karlsson

Accessibility has for many years been a widely used tool in transportation research. Many definitions have been suggested and researchers have constructed numerous mathematical formulations to measure its value in order to be able to evaluate the relationships between the nature of the transport systems and the patterns of land use. Such correlations have been used especially in assessing existing transport systems and forecasting their performance to provide decision-makers with ideas about the need for investments in the transport systems. However, accessibility measures can be regarded as the spatial counterparts of discounting. The measures represent the spatial distribution of economic agents and their activities in a simple way that imposes a very clear structure upon the relationship between these agents and their activities and their environment. Various frictional effects arising from geographical distance between economic agents determine their interaction options, that is, their options to trade, to cooperate, to learn, to commute, and so on. Observing that the time sensitivities of the economic agents vary between different spatial scales (and between different economic activities) we may impose a spatial structure (for example, local, intra-regional, interregional and international) which offers opportunities to define variables in such a way that spatial dependencies can be accommodated. These newly defined variables can then be used in empirical explanations of various spatial phenomena, such as patent output, new firm formation, the emergence of new export products, and economic growth in different spatial units. We will in this chapter against this background show that accessibility is an underused analytical and empirical tool in regional science with an underestimated potential.
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Charlie Karlsson and Philippe Rouchy

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Urban Gråsjö, Charlie Karlsson and Peter Warda

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Preface

Innovations, Networks and Collaborations

Edited by Charlie Karlsson, Martin Andersson and Lina Bjerke

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Introduction

Innovations, Networks and Collaborations

Martin Andersson, Lina Bjerke and Charlie Karlsson

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Geographies of Growth

Innovations, Networks and Collaborations

Edited by Charlie Karlsson, Martin Andersson and Lina Bjerke

Today we can observe an increasing spatial divide as some large urban regions and many more medium-sized and small regions face growing problems such as decreasing labour demand, increasing unemployment and an ageing population. In view of these trends, this book offers a better understanding of the general characteristics and specific drivers of the geographies of growth. It shows how these may vary in different spatial contexts, how hurdles and barriers to growth in different types of regions can be dealt with, how and to what extent resources in different areas can develop, and how the potential of these resources to stimulate growth can be realized.
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Urban Gråsjö, Charlie Karlsson and Iréne Bernhard

Innovations are generated by two types of economic agents: incumbent firms and entrepreneurs. This chapter discusses two specific but interrelated aspects of innovation by these two types of economic actors, namely the role of geography, that is, the location of economic agents, and of open innovation. A successful innovation process is usually an open process, where valuable ideas, knowledge and resources can come from both inside and outside the economic agent. This leads to two fundamental questions: how does openness influence the ability of incumbents and potential entrepreneurs to innovate and to appropriate the benefits of innovation? And how is this ability influenced by the location of incumbents and potential entrepreneurs? By discussing these factors in this introductory chapter, we create a background and a foundation for the rest of the chapters in this edited volume.

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Edited by Urban Gråsjö, Charlie Karlsson and Iréne Bernhard

Developed countries must be incredibly innovative to secure incomes and welfare so that they may successfully compete against international rivals. This book focuses on two specific but interrelated aspects of innovation by incumbent firms and entrepreneurs, the role of geography and of open innovation.