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Urban Gråsjö and Charlie Karlsson

Accessibility has for many years been a widely used tool in transportation research. Many definitions have been suggested and researchers have constructed numerous mathematical formulations to measure its value in order to be able to evaluate the relationships between the nature of the transport systems and the patterns of land use. Such correlations have been used especially in assessing existing transport systems and forecasting their performance to provide decision-makers with ideas about the need for investments in the transport systems. However, accessibility measures can be regarded as the spatial counterparts of discounting. The measures represent the spatial distribution of economic agents and their activities in a simple way that imposes a very clear structure upon the relationship between these agents and their activities and their environment. Various frictional effects arising from geographical distance between economic agents determine their interaction options, that is, their options to trade, to cooperate, to learn, to commute, and so on. Observing that the time sensitivities of the economic agents vary between different spatial scales (and between different economic activities) we may impose a spatial structure (for example, local, intra-regional, interregional and international) which offers opportunities to define variables in such a way that spatial dependencies can be accommodated. These newly defined variables can then be used in empirical explanations of various spatial phenomena, such as patent output, new firm formation, the emergence of new export products, and economic growth in different spatial units. We will in this chapter against this background show that accessibility is an underused analytical and empirical tool in regional science with an underestimated potential.
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Charlie Karlsson and Philippe Rouchy

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Sierdjan Koster and Charlie Karlsson

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Charlie Karlsson and Sam Tavassoli

The authors discuss the controversial area of industrial policy which, after the 2008 crisis, faced the reaction that markets do not always perform optimally for society, generating a demand for new policy models. The chapter shows how the views on industrial policy have changed from a long-term perspective, with a special focus on the post-war period up to the current post-industrial society. The authors argue that industrial policies should be placed at the regional level and that small- and medium-sized regions need different policies than do large urban regions. In addition, this chapter briefly evaluates the EU’s current approach to industrial policy – the so-called smart specialisation – and sheds light on the problems related to this policy initiative.

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Urban Gråsjö, Charlie Karlsson and Peter Warda

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Martin Andersson, Lina Bjerke and Charlie Karlsson

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Political Entrepreneurship

Regional Growth and Entrepreneurial Diversity in Sweden

Edited by Charlie Karlsson, Charlotte Silander and Daniel Silander

Political Entrepreneurship explores the role of political entrepreneurs in regional growth and entrepreneurial diversity. The authors define a political entrepreneur as a politician, bureaucrat or officer within the publicly funded sector who encourages entrepreneurship for growth and employment using innovative approaches. This book aims to enrich the established research on entrepreneurship with in-depth knowledge of the conditions conducive for political entrepreneurship in Sweden.
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Edited by Charlie Karlsson, Urban Gråsjö and Sofia Wixe

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Charlie Karlsson, Urban Gråsjö and Sofia Wixe

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Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the Global Economy

Knowledge, Technology and Internationalization

Edited by Charlie Karlsson, Urban Gråsjö and Sofia Wixe

Innovation and entrepreneurship are the prime drivers in the global economy. This scholarly book identifies some of the key forces behind innovation and entrepreneurship at the same time as it closes the gap between science and technology R & D, innovation, entrepreneurship, productivity growth, and internationalization. The expert contributions explore the underlying forces and add substantial theoretical and empirical knowledge to the current state-of-the-art in several research fields including the economics of innovation and entrepreneurship, regional economics, economic geography and international economics.