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Anica Zeyen and Markus Beckmann

Small business social responsibility (SBSR) and social entrepreneurship (SE) are two concepts that address societal value creation by small and medium sized organizations. This chapter takes the inherent hybridity of both forms as a starting point to ask where differences lie and which roles these concepts play for society across the globe. We argue that SE in developed countries complements welfare state organizations and serves as a societal R & D department, whereas it tends to substitute welfare state organizations in developing nations. Similarly, SBSR in developed nations has a greater focus on efficiency and ‘no harm’, whereas it places more emphasis on providing public goods in developing nations. We take this finding as a basis to argue for a greater integration of these four strands of research. In doing so, we identify four main insights which include the acknowledgement of multiple layers of hybridity, the integration of an agentic and contextual perspective, the importance of integrating societal impact with internal sustainability, as well as the understanding of when and how cooperation and networks work best for social value creation.