With the rise in prominence of issues of cybersecurity many measures have been adopted at the national and regional level. Action at the United Nations, however, has been relatively sluggish. For the most part activities since the Russia Federation initially introduced a draft resolution in 1998 have been impeded due to fundamental differences between the Russian Federation and the United States. However, since 2010 when the US for the first time acted as a co-sponsor to this resolution there has been a discernable momentum within the UN on issues of cybersecurity. The cyber attacks in Estonia in 2007, Georgia in 2008, and Iran in 2010, along with the revelations regarding states spying on one another, have only increased this momentum. As such, activity can be seen in various committees of the UN General Assembly including consensus being reached within several Groups of Governmental Experts on various issues. However, issues of cybersecurity have also been witnessed in the UN Security Council in the context of terrorist activity, the Economic and Social Council and various subsidiary organs and specialized agencies. With such a complex system of bodies addressing the issues, however, dialogue and communication between the various UN organs, bodies and groups now needs to be improved to enable further integrated concerted action and norm development. Furthermore, with discernable opposition to a comprehensive treaty on cybersecurity other forms of action, both regionally and bilaterally, also looks set to continue.
Robert Cryer and Christian Henderson
This comprehensive research review discusses seminal works from leading authors on the use of force and armed conflict, beginning with detailed analysis of the prohibition of forcible intervention, including interpretation of the rule and notable exceptions to it. In addition, the review provides a wealth of important information on the law of armed conflict in connection with its foundations, applicability, sources, substance, practical application, and implementation. This review provides a thorough grounding in the law relating to the initial use of force and subsequent armed conflict, and is an essential source of reference for practitioners, academics and students alike.
Christian Henderson and Nigel D. White
Jus ad Bellum, Jus in Bello and Jus post Bellum
Edited by Nigel White and Christian Henderson
This innovative Research Handbook brings together leading international law scholars from around the world to discuss and highlight the contemporary debate regarding issues of conflict prevention and the legality of resorting to the use of armed force through to those arising during an armed conflict and in the phase between conflict and peace.