Chapter 9 examines safety and security in Brazilian aviation. The chapter begins with a description of the Brazilian geography and population and a discussion of their importance for the design of safety and security measures. It then considers the air transportation sector in the key areas of airlines, airports, aircraft manufacturing, general aviation, air traffic management and aircraft maintenance and training. The chapter then discusses safety and security issues. In the latter case, both crimes against passengers and cargo thefts are considered. The difficulties of airport security due to the lack of investments in surveillance technology and of physical and electronic barriers are highlighted and a list of possible recommendations for the improvement of cargo and passenger security is then provided. The chapter ends with a description of the Civil Aviation National Agency that is responsible for aviation regulation in Brazil.