The epilogue chapter summarizes arguments presented in the book around the following research questions: (1) What are the challenges for innovation at the macro (system) and micro (firm) level according to the experiences of developing and transition countries? (2) What is the role of public policies in the transformation of national innovation systems? (3) What innovation practices successfully overcome challenges to innovation? (4) What is the role of collaboration and learning in fostering innovation? Based on the 10 case studies presented in the book, the chapter shows how national historical background and specific traits to various degrees shared by all developing and transition countries make successful innovation more difficult and how learning and collaboration help governments, firms, and other actors in the less developed part of the world to overcome these difficulties.
Alexandra Tsvetkova, Jana Schmutzler and Marcela Suarez
Jana Schmutzler, Marcela Suarez, Alexandra Tsvetkova and Alessandra Faggian
This introductory chapter synthesizes the arguments presented by the book contributors and argues that a broad definition of innovation systems is appropriate in the context of developing and transition countries. By weaving in specific examples from the chapters, the introduction demonstrates the importance of a context-specific approach that takes into account sociocultural context, macroeconomic structures and institutions. Taken as a whole, the book shows how the system level of National Innovation Systems (NIS) influences the way firms and other actors build up competences and learn, while the outcomes of interactions among these actors at the micro level shape the NIS environment.