The absence of nationality is acutely felt in terms of its impact on a child’s sense of identity, ability to exercise other rights and human dignity. With over 15 million stateless persons in the world today and more than 70,000 children still being born into statelessness every year, this presents a serious and pressing global challenge. This chapter discusses the principal circumstances in which children find themselves without any nationality and uses examples from around the world to illustrate the impact that this can have on their daily lives. It offers an overview of the content and scope of international norms relating to the right of every child to a nationality, before exploring how migration and childhood statelessness interact. The chapter closes with some reflections on the growing international commitment to the goal of ending childhood statelessness, commenting on the opportunities and challenges that present themselves in this context.