In this chapter, we assess four decades of scholarly endeavor and practitioners’ efforts on anti-counterfeiting strategies and their strategic effectiveness. With this aim, we intend to achieve three objectives. Firstly, we identify and categorize relevant themes on anti-counterfeiting strategies and their effectiveness. This effort differs from most prior work because our examination goes beyond strategies, focusing instead on strategic effectiveness. There is a need to examine this field since strategies can only generate positive outcomes when they are effective. This effort is particularly relevant for firms who are the frontrunners against counterfeiting. Secondly, we pay attention to relevant empirical boundaries for conducting research in strategic effectiveness against counterfeiting. This systematic critique allows a broad comprehension of the relevant empirical boundaries that have been examined (e.g. time frame, nations, industries and companies examined). Thirdly, such a systematic examination is equally evidenced in focusing on methodological critique. This will allow us to synthesize what methods are appropriate for examining this subject matter and how to take advantage of their strengths and avoid their weaknesses. Our examinations will allow identification of consistency and contradictions, and adequacy and voids, and provide directions for future research and insights for practitioners.