The resilience concept refers to the capacity of regions to deal with shocks. The concept, however, remains ambiguous and under-formalized. This chapter develops a conceptual evolutionary framework for regional resilience that distinguishes three dimensions of resilience: (1) the sensitivity to a shock; (2) the recovery from a shock; and, above all (3) the ability to transform and create new growth paths. It discusses the main factors that affect each of these resilience dimensions: the industrial and technological structure of regions, their network structure, and their institutional setting. In doing so, the chapter sheds light on the links between regional resilience and regional competitiveness.