Job insecurity (JI) refers to “the perceived powerlessness to maintain the desired continuity in a threatened job situation” (Greenhalgh and Rosenblatt 1984, p. 438). Given the role of gender in shaping work-related attitudes and family–work related responsibilities, the framework of this chapter tries to examine whether perceptions of insecurity differ according to gender. It is argued that gender might influence the perception of JI and thus the severity of its consequences. In this vein, this chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the literature on the association between perceptions of JI and gender. In addition, the chapter aims to provide a comprehensive overview of measurement instruments of JI. For this purpose, the chapter addresses how JI has been conceptualized and operationalized in the extant literature so far. Measurement instruments are also evaluated with a gender lens perspective to suggest new avenues for future research.