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Salman M.A. Salman

This chapter traces the various agreements on the Nile concluded during the colonial and post-colonial eras. It analyses the 1902 and 1929 agreements that Egypt and Sudan claim grant them veto power over projects on the Nile in upstream countries, and which these countries have disavowed. It also discusses the 1959 Nile Agreement under which Egypt and Sudan divided the entire Nile flow between themselves. However, recent agreements concluded by Ethiopia with Sudan in 1991, and with Egypt in 1993, the Nile Basin Initiative, and the Cooperative Framework Agreement 2009, started recognizing other riparians’ rights on the Nile. The chapter argues that these agreements, and the Declaration of Principles concluded by Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan on the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam in 2015 have resulted in the gradual levelling the Nile Basin playing field, and are changing the entire Nile legal contours.