Decision-making research has been influenced by both the literatures on team mental models and intragroup conflict. However, there has been little research on the relationship between the two constructs. Interestingly enough, empirical findings in each field have come to different conclusions with knowledge diversity typically being associated with higher team effectiveness in the intragroup conflict literature and knowledge sharing being associated with higher team effectiveness in the team mental model literature. The purpose of this chapter is to take a closer look at the similarities and differences of the theoretical and methodological structures of both literatures in order to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings. Through doing so, we uncover ways in which researchers in either field can learn from each other. In particular, we discuss how the task- and model-based contingencies examined in the intragroup conflict literature may inform research on team mental models. We also discuss how the measurement of team mental models may inform future research on intragroup conflict. We conclude with recommendations for future research for both streams of literature.