This paper examines the features of resource and environmental policy formation in late industrialized countries of East and Southeast Asia and in some developed countries. It also attempts to explore the structural obstacles that the formation of the resource and environmental policies encountered. More specifically, this chapter focuses on two different aspects of “latecomer” in the processes of resource and environmental policy formation and economic development. First, formation of these policies often takes place only after other public policies are formulated: in this aspect, resource and environmental policies can be regarded as “latecomer” public policies. Second, while the “latecomer” feature of resource and environmental policies are commonly observed both in developed and developing countries, these policies tend to face with more obstacles in late industrializing countries. These countries of “latecomer” position in economic development tend to take priority on industrial development rather than resource conservation and environmental protection. In this chapter, it is emphasized that this fact affects the formation and implementation of environmental policies negatively as the environmental agencies and laws are incorporated after the establishment of other governmental bodies.
In this paper, the early process of environmental policy formation in Taiwan in the 1970’s is analyzed comparing between the water pollution control and the air pollution control. In Taiwan, soon after the Water Pollution Control Act in 1974 is enacted as the first environmental law, the Air Pollution Control Act was enacted in 1975. The air pollution control policy of Taiwan is considered as unsuccessful, same as water pollution control policy, for the policy could not control the spread of air pollution for 10 years after. However, there are two points to be counted as a relative success in the Air Pollution Control Act in 1975. First, it was enacted relatively in early period as a developing country. Second, the government also conceded to make the provision to regulate emission outside the Air Pollution Control Zone, which covers the most areas in Taiwan. Compared with the Water Pollution Control Act in 1974 that was unable to regulate polluters outside of the Water Pollution Control Zone without any punitive clauses for the polluters, the Air Pollution Control Act reflected the results of short period of democratization in Taiwan.
Edited by Tadayoshi Terao and Tsuruyo Funatsu
Tadayoshi Terao and Tsuruyo Funatsu
What are the difficulties in the formation processes of resource and environmental policy? Little is known about specific characteristics of environmental policy formation and its history. This introduction traces origins and evolution of environmental policy formation by focusing on the state’s role and the time order. All the chapters on policy formation in this book examine the situation from a “path dependence” perspective and clarify problems associated with diffused authority and its integration within the government agencies concerned with the environmental policy. As such, the expert contributors bring about new insights on how the concept of “environment” and environmental policies evolved and the way this “latecomer” public policy gave effects to a conflicting mechanism between the development and environment both in developed and developing countries.