Projective techniques have considerable potential to study consumer behaviour and are widely used in commercial market research and psychology, but not in tourism and hospitality research. This chapter demonstrates that tourism and hospitality researchers can collect richer data from smaller samples by using projective techniques, which provide more flexibility and allow the combination of multiple projective methods to triangulate findings. Projective techniques are qualitative methods that reach the subconscious of respondents by asking them to interpret information or complete tasks, which circumvent normative responses that create social desirability bias. Five techniques are outlined: collage, choice ordering, word association, photo elicitation and a scenario expressive technique. The study found that the most successful instrument for reducing social desirability bias was word association, while the least successful was photo-expression. The limitations are the highly resource intensive nature of rigorous analysis, ambiguous stimuli impacting on the complexity of data elicitation and codification, and variations in interpretation of the meaning of the results.
Sheree-Ann Adams, Davina Stanford and Xavier Font
The study of ethical consumer behaviour decision making (CBDM) is difficult to research, due to social desirability response bias (SDRB) when respondents give responses they consider as socially acceptable, rather than realistic responses. This chapter discusses conjoint analysis (CA) as a method which may overcome these challenges
José F. Molina-Azorin, Xavier Font, María D. López-Gamero, Jorge Pereira-Moliner, Eva M. Pertusa-Ortega and Juan J. Tarí
The purpose of this chapter is to examine the main characteristics and benefits of mixed methods. The chapter aims to help tourism scholars to become more familiar with this approach, providing the literature base and examining two key aspects: why and how to use mixed methods. Several examples of mixed methods works in tourism are examined.