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Peggy A. Kong, Xiaoran Yu and Xia Zhao

The chapter considers the role of paid private tutoring or ‘shadow education’ in relation to the provision of the mainstream education system. It raises concerns about variability in the access to and the quality of private tutoring across the country, and calls for policy interventions to address ethical concerns and allegations of corruption among teachers participating in ‘shadow education’. It shows also the tension between individual aspirations in education on the one hand, and social provision on the other.