Adaptation finance refers to the transfer of funds, including mobilization of new finance, by the North to support activities in the South construed as climate change adaptation, on the basis of equity principles politically negotiated and adopted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). As such, adaptation finance serves not only an instrumental and practical purpose in financing concrete adaptation activities or investments, but also a legitimacy and credibility purpose, which is of critical importance to the success of the climate regime at large. This chapter discusses how these dual purposes – the practical and the political – create some challenges specific to international adaptation finance. First, we describe the evolution of adaptation finance and identify recent trends with regards to its definition, the gap between funds made available so far and estimated needs, current spending patterns, and institutions and instruments involved in its delivery. In the following section, we discuss three key challenges facing adaptation finance: the ambiguous relationship between adaptation and development finance, issues around ownership and accountability of adaptation finance, and problems of monitoring and evaluating effectiveness of adaptation projects. Finally, we provide some concluding remarks and areas for further research.
Åsa Persson and Aaron Atteridge
Måns Nilsson and Åsa Persson
Harro van Asselt, Tim Rayner and Åsa Persson
In the 1990s environmental policy integration (EPI) became a popular approach to bring about preventive environmental action in key polluting and resource-using sectors. Following the rise of climate change on the political agenda, a similar imperative of climate policy integration (CPI) has emerged. In this chapter, we discuss questions raised by CPI, with some practical examples from EU policymaking. Specifically, we examine whether and how three challenges that have emerged in the context of EPI—the incentive structures of integration; prioritization of objectives; and safeguarding democratic accountability—also hold for CPI. We show that sufficient resources need to accompany CPI, but that the promise of such resources may also lead to ‘re-labeling’ ongoing activities as climate-relevant. We further underline the importance of disaggregating questions of CPI, taking into account the particularities of mitigation and adaptation, as well as those of the different policy sectors with which integration is sought. Finally, we highlight that ensuring the democratic accountability of CPI is particularly challenging in the EU context, where policymakers at one level can defer difficult political tradeoffs between policy goals to other levels of governance.