You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items

  • Author or Editor: Abdullah Gök x
Clear All Modify Search
This content is available to you

Edited by Jakob Edler, Paul Cunningham, Abdullah Gök and Philip Shapira

This content is available to you

Edited by Jakob Edler, Paul Cunningham, Abdullah Gök and Philip Shapira

This content is available to you

Jakob Edler, Abdullah Gök, Paul Cunningham and Philip Shapira

This chapter introduces the reader to the wealth of evidence in this Handbook, and provides guidance for the interpretation of its findings. It first presents the basic definitions and delineations of innovation policy and discusses innovation policy rationales and their limitations. The chapter then reflects on the different understandings of policy instruments and on the nature of policy impact, highlighting the benefits, value and limits of impact analysis. Against this background, a typology of innovation policy instruments is presented which has been developed for this Handbook to systematise the evidence and which allows distinct entry points for readers interested in different kinds of instruments. After providing an explanation of the methodology applied throughout the Handbook, the chapter closes with reflections on how to interpret the findings of the book.
You do not have access to this content

Jakob Edler, Philip Shapira, Paul Cunningham and Abdullah Gök

This concluding chapter synthesises the main findings and insights from the study of available evidence on the effectiveness of innovation policy intervention as presented in the Handbook. It begins by reminding the reader of the overall concept of innovation policy and impact followed throughout the Handbook. It then highlights key findings from the evidence on the effectiveness of the range of innovation policy instruments. It discusses overall lessons regarding the effectiveness and impacts of these innovation support measures. In addition, the concluding chapter offers observations and insights about the state of evidence on the effectiveness of policies in this domain, including considerations of evaluation methods, approaches and gaps. This provides a basis for deliberation on improved policy design and implementation, as well as concluding thoughts about evaluation and the production of evidence more broadly to support innovation policy making in the future.
You do not have access to this content

Edited by Jakob Edler, Paul Cunningham, Abdullah Gök and Philip Shapira

Innovation underpins competitiveness, is crucial to addressing societal challenges, and its support has become a major public policy goal. But what really works in innovation policy, and why? This Handbook, compiled by leading experts in the field, is the first comprehensive guide to understanding the logic and effects of innovation polices. The Handbook develops a conceptualisation and typology of innovation policies, presents meta-evaluations for 16 key innovation policy instruments and analyses evidence on policy-mix. For each policy instrument, underlying rationales and examples are presented, along with a critical analysis of the available impact evidence. Providing access to primary sources of impact analysis, the book offers an insightful assessment of innovation policy practice and its evaluation.
You do not have access to this content

Paul Cunningham, Abdullah Gök and Philippe Larédo

Direct support of R & D to individual companies, particularly through grants and loans, is a cornerstone of innovation policy. While initially targeted at large firms, the focus of direct measure is now very often on SMEs, and on specific sectors or technologies or – more recently – targeted at societal challenges and to mitigate the adverse financial climate within which firms currently operate. R & D grants and loans are generally simple instruments to implement. They show a range of quantifiable input effects (e.g. increased R & D expenditure) and output effects (e.g. increased turnover with innovation based on R & D and an increased level of invention measured with patents). Evaluations also find a change towards riskier and more ambitious innovation activities supported by direct measures, especially for small and younger firms. However, evaluations struggle to determine the overall effects, especially the less tangible outcomes such as effects on behaviour, skills and capacity, and long-term spillover effects. Also, the ‘average’ success of a programme tends to be based on a small number of successful cases. The chapter finds a crowding-out effect of firm spending on R & D above a subsidisation rate of 20 per cent, and also indicates that, while firms do better with repeated support, especially when linking direct and indirect support, this risks creating a subsidy culture for a few and lack of support for many. Finally, direct support measures perform better when accompanied by a complementary set of services and further support.
You do not have access to this content

Paul Cunningham and Abdullah Gök

Measures to foster longer-term cooperation between science and industrial actors represent a significant part of the innovation policy portfolio. Governments support these links to achieve economies of scope and scale, to overcome disincentives of transaction costs and knowledge spillovers and to provide support for knowledge transfer. The evaluations of collaborative schemes share several challenges common to the evaluation of other innovation support schemes, such as problems of time lag, spillovers and behavioural effects, with the added challenge of defining the scope of impact across and beyond the cooperation. Providing a broad evidence base, the chapter nevertheless focuses on a number of extensive evaluations of high-level R & D collaboration. The chapter provides a set of general lessons for the design and implementation of collaborative support instruments, such as alignment of collaboration programmes with other programmes, some provision of formation and education within the programme, and support of managing collaboration projects while keeping bureaucracy at a minimum. Future evaluations of collaboration programmes need to take account of the specificities of each programme and its context much better, and need more convincing ways of demonstrating the causality and contribution of programmes.
You do not have access to this content

Abdullah Gök

Innovation inducement prizes are among the oldest types of innovation policy measures. The popularity of innovation inducement prizes gradually decreased during the early twentieth century. However, innovation inducement prizes have regained some of their popularity since the 1990s, especially in the US and UK. Despite the growing popularity of innovation inducement prizes, the impact of this innovation policy measure is still not understood. This chapter brings together the existing evidence on the effects of innovation inducement prizes by drawing on a number of ex-ante and ex-post evaluations as well as limited academic literature. As well as developing the particular technology that the innovation inducement prizes produce, they create prestige for both the prize sponsor and entrants. Prizes might also increase public and sectoral awareness on specific technology issues. Design issues are the main concern of the prizes literature. A number of studies point out that sometimes prizes should be accompanied or followed by other demand-side initiatives to fulfil their objectives, mostly on the basis of ex-ante evaluations. Finally, prizes are seen as a valuable opportunity for experimentation in innovation policy. Prizes can overcome some of the inherent barriers to other instruments, but if prizes are poorly designed, managed and awarded they may be ineffective or even harmful.