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Antoni Verger, Adrián Zancajo and Clara Fontdevila

International actors are increasingly active in promoting education reforms worldwide, but especially in contexts of vulnerability. As in a zero-sum game, the presence of international actors is expected to compensate for the budgetary and administrative restrictions that governments face in vulnerable countries. Nonetheless, international actors do not only operate in contexts of fragility for humanitarian reasons, or to cover governmental needs. For many international actors, contexts of vulnerability are privileged spaces to promote their preferred policy reform approaches, and to experiment with “innovative” solutions that would be difficult to implement in more stable political contexts. This chapter focuses on the way international actors promote different pro-private education solutions in vulnerable contexts. Specifically, we analyze two cases in which international actors have been especially prominent in advancing an education privatization agenda: the expansion of low-fee private schools in low-income countries and the promotion of pro-private sector solutions in contexts of emergency.