The focus of this chapter is on building the business case for sustainable supply chains. Sustainability, sustainable supply chains and green supply chains are defined and discussed. A recent literature review summarizes the current schools of thought for building the business case for sustainability and how that compares with building the business case for sustainable supply chains. What it means to build a business case is also discussed. Furthermore, a variety of models that have been utilized recently to reflect the various thought processes when making the business case for sustainable supply chains are reviewed, with the authors suggesting a holistic decision-making model for enterprises to use when considering sustainable supply chain improvements. Future research concerns are also summarized.