A robust literature showing the connections between territorial politics and economic development has built up over the past decades. This literature stresses the social construction of territories and the productive systems that correspond to them. The chapter focuses on four major strands of research. The first makes a case for the overall connection between politics, governance and economic development both in macro and micro settings. The second focuses on the important mediating role performed by local politicians in linking together political centers and their peripheries. The third is that which posits a strong direct connection between place-specific political histories and economic development. Finally, globalization and the spread of supranational institutions have reoriented the geographic framing of territorial politics and its relationship to economic development. The chapter argues that studying economic development today requires careful attention to the emerging multi-scale politics.