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Alan Southern and Geoff Whittam

Neoliberal perspectives heavily influence the language and outcomes from the enterprise and entrepreneurship agenda. While in recent years there has been a challenge to the market-driven functionalist approach to understanding enterprise, particularly from the Scandinavian School, which prioritises narrative, the primacy attached to enterprise has remained essentially neoliberal. The Left appear to have acquiesced in this discourse, and both sets of views coalesce around the characteristics of enterprise, with, for example, profit seeking and exploitation referring to the same sets of activity although from a different perspective. In this chapter we argue how entrepreneurship and place can be examined through collective enterprising activities that exist in urban communities across the UK and beyond and that provide the basis to re-appropriate language and action in this domain. This chapter highlights entrepreneurial activity which is based on collectivism and solidarity rather than the actions of individual entrepreneurs. It does so using case study research in Liverpool and Glasgow. This demonstrates the resilience and resistance that can accompany enterprise and entrepreneurship in urban communities.

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Carole Howorth, Caroline Parkinson and Alan Southern