What does social justice mean with respect to later life? We need to comprehend the social injustices that are associated with old age, or what might be termed unjust ageing. These are inequalities that arise from the way that societies are organised rather than from diversities such as gender, race, ethnicity, personality or physical attributes that characterise all human societies. The good fortune to be born a woman does not have to result in injustice but, in patriarchal societies, it invariably means a subordinate economic status entailing lower income and more labour market precarity than a man, which in time means lower pension in old age. This inequality is not inevitable, but it is universal because societies are not arranged in ways to prevent it. The chapter looks at the policy measures required to ensure that social injustice is minimised in later life and the principles underpinning such a programme.
Alan Walker and Liam Foster
This research review presents the most important and influential articles and papers on ageing and later life of the past half century. The authors examine policy creation and implementation, practice and critical gerontology including both feminist and international perspectives. This is a critical assembly of work and will be of immense assistance to anyone looking to understand the consequences of our ageing population on society.