Both conservative and transformational forces and agents agree in principle on the urgent need to eradicate extreme poverty as soon as possible, and to substantially reduce multidimensional poverty. This consensus, although relevant, may not apply to other goals and targets, particularly those with more potential to deal with the underlying structures that cause poverty. The integral realization of Agenda 2030 has the potential to produce a transformation of the development model, while addressing some of the causes of persistent poverty. However, focusing solely on the alleviation of extreme poverty, without dealing with its systemic causes, might legitimize the new agenda and governance institutions but will most likely fail to create a sustainable future for all. This chapter presents a proposal to move forward in the construction and implementation of an integrated science framework that could transform poverty and development research to address the development and global challenges of the twenty-first century.