Jana Schmutzler, Marcela Suarez, Alexandra Tsvetkova and Alessandra Faggian
This introductory chapter synthesizes the arguments presented by the book contributors and argues that a broad definition of innovation systems is appropriate in the context of developing and transition countries. By weaving in specific examples from the chapters, the introduction demonstrates the importance of a context-specific approach that takes into account sociocultural context, macroeconomic structures and institutions. Taken as a whole, the book shows how the system level of National Innovation Systems (NIS) influences the way firms and other actors build up competences and learn, while the outcomes of interactions among these actors at the micro level shape the NIS environment.
Edited by Alexandra Tsvetkova, Jana Schmutzler, Marcela Suarez and Alessandra Faggian
An International Perspective
Roberta Comunian, Sarah Jewell and Alessandra Faggian
Current research in regional science and economic geography has been placing increasing emphasis on the role played by the attraction and retention of graduates in shaping patterns of local economic development in Europe and internationally. Within this growing field of study, the patterns of migration of graduates has been explored in detail and its connection with personal benefits for the individual (higher salaries) and regional cumulative outcomes have been examined. Another trend, which has received some, although marginal, attention, is the increase in female participation and achievement in higher education. The scope of this chapter is to consider the interconnection between these two fields in graduate studies: gender and migration patterns. Using data from the 2006/07 cohort longitudinal DLHE survey, migration patterns of graduates are explored, with particular focus on gender dynamics. Graduates are classified according to their sequential migration behaviour first from their pre-university domicile to university, then from university to first job post-graduation, and finally their job 3.5 years after graduation. The chapter further focuses on the potential salary benefits of migration decisions and their difference across the two gender groups. It also explores how these migration patterns and the potential salary benefits of migration vary across different subject groups.
Roberta Comunian, Alessandra Faggian and Sarah Jewell
Alessandra Faggian, Jonathan Corcoran and Mark Partridge
An International Perspective
Alessandra Faggian, Jonathan Corcoran and Rachel S. Franklin
This chapter is the first analysis of graduate mobility patterns in the United States with a focus on unveiling the role that inter-regional migration plays in shaping graduate salaries. By classifying graduates into five groups based on their sequential migration behaviour first from their pre-university state to college and then from college to their current job location, results reveal that most migratory individuals – that is, ‘repeat migrants’ – benefit from the highest wage premium both in terms of mean (16.3 per cent) and median salary (13.2 per cent). Results also point to other migration behaviours attracting wage premiums, although these vary according to the type of graduate. In particular, domestic graduates benefit more from return migration (an 11.3 per cent increase in mean salary) than repeat migration (10.1 per cent) possibly because of network and family effects in the state of domicile. Overall we find that migration behaviour does influence labour-market outcomes and salaries in particular. Geographical space – in this case represented by migration flows – matters, and should always be included in analyses. This study is a first step towards gaining a more comprehensive understanding of the role that migration plays in shaping the spatial distribution and dynamics of human capital across the United States. This is particularly important given that the United States is the world’s largest education market that continues to experience marked growth.