This chapter studies labor market resilience after a disaster, and proposes an empirical application to understand specific aspects of it. Different types of re-orientation are defined and estimated using data of workers in the regions affected by an earthquake. Results indicate that the probability of employment was the most significant impact of the disaster, while industry switching and wage growth are neither affected by the earthquake nor by place-specific characteristics. Positive and negative convergence effects are observed in the poorest and richest regions, respectively. We also observe heterogeneity among industries, although these effects are not essentially different to the pre-disaster years.
Benjamin Jara and Alessandra Faggian
Jonathan Corcoran and Alessandra Faggian
An International Perspective
Edited by Jonathan Corcoran and Alessandra Faggian
Alessandra Faggian, Jonathan Corcoran and Mark Partridge
Roberta Comunian, Sarah Jewell and Alessandra Faggian
Current research in regional science and economic geography has been placing increasing emphasis on the role played by the attraction and retention of graduates in shaping patterns of local economic development in Europe and internationally. Within this growing field of study, the patterns of migration of graduates has been explored in detail and its connection with personal benefits for the individual (higher salaries) and regional cumulative outcomes have been examined. Another trend, which has received some, although marginal, attention, is the increase in female participation and achievement in higher education. The scope of this chapter is to consider the interconnection between these two fields in graduate studies: gender and migration patterns. Using data from the 2006/07 cohort longitudinal DLHE survey, migration patterns of graduates are explored, with particular focus on gender dynamics. Graduates are classified according to their sequential migration behaviour first from their pre-university domicile to university, then from university to first job post-graduation, and finally their job 3.5 years after graduation. The chapter further focuses on the potential salary benefits of migration decisions and their difference across the two gender groups. It also explores how these migration patterns and the potential salary benefits of migration vary across different subject groups.
Alessandra Faggian, Félix Modrego and Philip McCann
This chapter aims at showcasing to a broad audience how the concept of human capital can add to our understanding of regional economic growth and development. It begins with a review of the concept of human capital in mainstream economics. This is followed by a discussion of the regional aspects of the relationship between human capital and growth, focusing on the drivers and consequences of the interregional mobility of human capital. After that, the chapter elaborates on the key issue of the endogenous concentration of skilled human capital in cities and how this concentration is strongly associated with regional differences in productivity growth. It then focuses on the limitations of the traditional conceptualizations of human capital. The chapter concludes with a critical review of some of the remaining grey areas in our knowledge about the role of human capital for regional growth, drawing some implications for future research, policy and practice.
Roberta Comunian, Alessandra Faggian and Sarah Jewell
Over the last few decades there has been considerable research on knowledge economies. Within this broad field, research on the value of digital technologies and creative industries have attracted academics and policy makers because of the complexity of their development, supply chains and models of production. In particular, many have recognized the difficulty in capturing the role that digital technologies and innovation play within the creative industries. Digital technologies are embedded in the production and market structures of creative industries and are also partially distinct and discernible from them. They also seem to play a key role in innovation relating to access and delivery of creative content. The chapter explores the role played by digital technologies, focusing on a key aspect of their development and implementation: human capital. Using student micro data collected by the Higher Education Statistical Agency (HESA) in the United Kingdom, the authors investigate the location determinants and other characteristics of graduates who enter the creative industries, specifically comparing graduates in the creative arts and graduates from digital technology subjects. They highlight patterns of geographical specialization, but also how some contexts seem better able to integrate creativity and innovation into the workforce. The chapter deals specifically with understanding whether these skills are equally embedded across the creative industries or are concentrated in specific sub-sectors. Furthermore, it explores the role that creative graduates play in each sub-sector, their financial rewards and the geographical determinants of employment outcomes.
Alessandra Faggian, Jonathan Corcoran and Rachel S. Franklin
This chapter is the first analysis of graduate mobility patterns in the United States with a focus on unveiling the role that inter-regional migration plays in shaping graduate salaries. By classifying graduates into five groups based on their sequential migration behaviour first from their pre-university state to college and then from college to their current job location, results reveal that most migratory individuals – that is, ‘repeat migrants’ – benefit from the highest wage premium both in terms of mean (16.3 per cent) and median salary (13.2 per cent). Results also point to other migration behaviours attracting wage premiums, although these vary according to the type of graduate. In particular, domestic graduates benefit more from return migration (an 11.3 per cent increase in mean salary) than repeat migration (10.1 per cent) possibly because of network and family effects in the state of domicile. Overall we find that migration behaviour does influence labour-market outcomes and salaries in particular. Geographical space – in this case represented by migration flows – matters, and should always be included in analyses. This study is a first step towards gaining a more comprehensive understanding of the role that migration plays in shaping the spatial distribution and dynamics of human capital across the United States. This is particularly important given that the United States is the world’s largest education market that continues to experience marked growth.