In 2008, Norway was the first country to implement a regulation for gender balance on boards in public limited companies. Later several other countries have followed. In this chapter, we investigate the wider effects of the regulation in Norway, by inspecting other changes in the composition of board members in the period from 2006–2016. We mirror these changes by comparing the development in the public limited companies with other companies in Norway, and we find that the gender regulation led to more women on boards, but also to changes in age, nationalities, and multiple directorships among public limited companies. The institutional framework is argued to be important to understand the development and rate of these changes.
Eskil Sønju Le Bruyn Goldeng, Alessandra Rigolini and Patricia Gabaldon
Alessandra Rigolini, Jonas Gabrielsson, Mirian Izquierdo Barriuso and Morten Huse
In this chapter we reflect on the ongoing megatrend of digitalization in relation to boards of directors. We define and discuss the digital transformation and its consequences for societies and corporations as well as how corporations cope with digitalization inside and outside the boardroom. Furthermore, we examine and discuss accountabilities and competencies for boards and board members in the digital era. The chapter concludes with an analysis of different layers in which digitalization and the digital transformation of society may influence boards and governance.