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Alexander-Stamatios G. Antoniou

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Alexander-Stamatios G. Antoniou

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Alexander-Stamatios Antoniou and Marina Dalla

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Alexander-Stamatios Antoniou and Marioleni Apergi

This chapter highlights the problems faced by women in the leadership of higher education. Although in most countries in the world, and in particular in the West, the legal and institutional framework recognizes gender equality, including labor and opportunities within the working environment, it is being circumvented in favor of the male sex and to the detriment of women, and stereotyped conceptions of gender roles are a powerful building block of culture that overrides the legal-institutional framework. Women are disproportionately represented among senior executives in the administration of universities, they learn to advance more slowly and they are controlled by variables such as age, discipline, class, and institution. Also, with regard to academic careers, there are differences between men and women; for example, women devote more time to teaching and advice than men do. Education in general is a traditional female profession in Europe and in the Western world. However, the percentage of women who follow or hold leading positions is extremely low. From the international literature it is shown that at university institutes, women scientists face “a glass roof and an inaccessible path.” Finally, this study refers to global studies that point to the strong presence of women in university institutions but their downward course as they go up the scale of the hierarchy.

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Alexander-Stamatios Antoniou and Virginia Aggelou

This chapter focuses on gender stereotypes and how they affect female managers throughout their careers. As is evident from the statistics, the number of female employees has increased and the quality of their work has improved significantly over the last few decades. Nonetheless, there are still barriers to be overcome. Women appear to be underrepresented in higher corporate positions, a phenomenon which appears to be connected to gender and leadership stereotypes. Many theories confirming this connection are mentioned. As a result, women leaders seem to violate the norm, since leadership remains associated with male-type behavior and agentic characteristics, such as aggressiveness. Backlash effects for female managers are often observed, even if they adopt a more masculine style of leadership. Along with gender stereotypes, the “queen bee” syndrome constitutes another reason for preserving the gendered hierarchy, although more research is needed in order to understand its complexity.

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Nikos Drosos and Alexander-Stamatios Antoniou

The present study aims at investigating Greek female managers’ attitudes toward women managers and their correlation with various personal characteristics, such as age, family status, education level, work experience, and managerial experience. Furthermore several beliefs of female managers regarding gender’s influence on career development are examined. A total of 376 female managers who are employed in Greek private companies participated in the study. The “Attitudes Towards Women Managers – ATWoM” was used to assess attitudes toward women as managers and the “Gender and Authority Measure – GAM” was used to measure preference for male versus female authorities. The results of the study suggest that in general female managers do not prefer one gender over the other in respect of authority figures. Additionally, attitudes toward women managers as assessed by ATWoM were moderate to slightly positive. Demographic data were found to have an impact on participants’ attitudes toward women. Results are discussed in terms of their practical implications.

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Alexander-Stamatios G. Antoniou and Marina Dalla

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Alexander-Stamatios G. Antoniou and Marina Dalla

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Christos-Thomas Kechagias and Alexander-Stamatios Antoniou

This chapter studies one of the most famous mythological origins of women leadership development by exploring the role of the goddess Athena in the Homeric poems, Iliad and Odyssey. Greeks in their first instituted direct democracy in 508 BC regarded Homer as a part of the culture and education (paideia) of their successful members and citizens in the polis, identifying the qualities of leadership and recognizing the role of mentoring. Homeric poems could be used as a foundation of a new insight into the origins of women mentoring and leadership in one of the most ancient texts of human history. From the perspective of literature and mythology, leadership development practice seems to have an almost three thousand year history starting from the mythological action of Athena in the Homeric world. By underlining the significance of identifying mentoring and leadership skills that are innate to human societies and specific to their training development process, it is suggested that the Socratic value of “know thyself” is similar to the early leadership role of Athena in the ancient classical world. It seems that Athena acts as a mentor of heroes to guide them or to inspire them to behave as leaders.

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Edited by Alexander-Stamatios G. Antoniou and Cary L. Cooper