The chapter analyses the pattern of enforcement of Art. 102 TFEU in network industries by the national competition authorities (NCAs) of the new and the EU Member States who candidate. The chapter concludes that while the European Commission has enforced Art. 102 TFEU in the context of its market liberalization agenda, the NCAs of the selected jurisdictions have enforced Art. 102 TFEU in order to protect final consumers. In particular, while the Commission has focused its enforcement on exclusionary conduct and adopted structural and behavioural remedies via commitment decisions, the NCAs of the selected jurisdictions have mainly sanctioned exploitative conduct, such as excessive pricing and unfair contractual conditions.