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Henry Etzkowitz and Alice Zhou

The Triple Helix Model has been proposed as a tool to describe and understand the complex field of University–Industry–Government (U–I–G) interactions. This chapter introduces its conceptual history as well as its origins in the nexus of Silicon Valley and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and compares it to Innovation Systems Theory. The chapter then discusses both the role of the model in current knowledge societies and the particular circumstances of Silicon Valley in its development. Lastly, the authors reflect on the generalizability of the model and highlight its advantages.