Ana María Peredo and James J. Chrisman
In a context of increasing globalization and neoliberal economic policies, to what extent can local communities respond to the social, cultural, economic and environmental impacts posed by those processes? This chapter provides a conceptual foundation for understanding one particular community response that emerges from local cultural and collective action. ‘Community-based enterprise’ (CBE) is the vehicle in which the community creates an entity that constitutes the community as both an entrepreneur and an enterprise addressing economic, social and environmental challenges holistically. We define ‘CBE’, as a community acting corporately as both entrepreneur and enterprise in pursuit of community common good. This form of enterprise departs from traditional models of entrepreneur in which the agent is an individual or a group of individuals. The basis for this chapter begins in communities in the global south, but extends to communities in the global north. It examines the social, environmental, economic and/or political conditions associated with the emergence of CBEs. It also points out the role that collective action, forms of social capital and size play in its creation. We consider also their typical characteristics such as rootedness in available community skills, multiplicity of goals as well as prevailing community participation and governance structures. The effects of CBEs on fostering entrepreneurship within communities as well as similar developments in neighbouring communities are outlined as well. We discuss challenges to CBE in the form of balancing individual and collective outcomes, of reconciling social, economic and environmental goals and withstanding the pressures of globalization and generational change. We conclude by outlining a future research agenda.
Ana María Peredo, Murdith McLean and Crystal Tremblay
The focus in this chapter is on the connection between the promise of social innovation and a particular population that is especially acquainted with the kinds of problems that social innovation is supposed to tackle: Indigenous peoples around the world. Rather than consider what forms of social innovation not yet identified or attempted might be employed to address the difficulties faced by Indigenous peoples, the authors raise the question of what specifically Indigenous social innovation might look like, and whether something like that is already taking place. They ask further what we can learn from distinctively Indigenous social innovation (ISI) that could inform our attack on social problems faced not only by the Indigenous but by other disadvantaged peoples and communities. The authors begin with a brief exploration of the concept of social innovation. They then proceed to look at two main literature streams to inform the search for what is distinctive about ISI. These streams suggest three aspects in which they might expect ISI to be grounded: (1) traditional knowledge and practices; (2) distinct cosmology and culture; and (3) struggles for decolonization and Indigenous resurgence. The authors consider a specific case of Indigenous innovation that illustrates how those distinctive aspects work in practice and the possibilities that opens for Indigenous communities. They conclude the chapter with a research agenda.