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Anastassia Tsoukala

This chapter presents a critical overview of the main aspects of EU counter-hooliganism policies. The chapter argues that from the mid-1990s up to 2006, the main approach was elaborated under the sole influence of law enforcers who, in the absence of any definition of football crowd violence, turned into key definers and managers of this form of violence. Quite unsurprisingly, these police-led policies have been of limited efficiency because, by definition, they could not go beyond the stage of engaging in an endless struggle against the ever-changing manifestation of the phenomenon. The re-founding of EU policies, from 2007 on, marks a turning point in countering football crowd violence due to the introduction of long-term preventive policies and the inclusion of supporters in stakeholder groups.