Democratic theories have illuminated and infused various governance approaches. But, contemporaneously, governance is also challenging traditional democratic culture and practices. Scholars worldwide are grappling with the question of how new governance has instantiated democratic features and mechanisms. They are also attempting to expound the theoretical sources and ways in which democratic features shape what is the specific character of distinct forms of new governance. This chapter pays particular attention to what the different strands of democratic theory imply for the study of governance by focusing on the identification and distinction of how normative and empirical-analytical theories of democracy inspire contemporary governance, and how cardinal democratic ideas and values – inclusion, self-determination and the formation of public opinion and political will – elucidate both broad and narrow meanings of governance concepts and practices from the perspectives of various democratic theories.
Ortwin Renn and Andreas Klinke
The term “governance” has been used in political science to describe the multitude of actors and processes that lead to collective binding decisions. The term “risk governance” involves the translation of the substance and core principles of governance to the context of risk-related decision-making. Risk governance pertains to the various ways in which many actors, individuals and institutions, public and private, deal with risks and provides a conceptual as well as normative basis for how to deal responsibly with uncertain, complex and/or ambiguous risks in particular. The chapter synthesizes the body of scholarly ideas and proposals on the governance of systemic risks in a set of management regimes: the combination of risk-based, precautionary and discourse-based management regimes. This set of regimes should be read as a synthesis of what needs to be seriously considered in organizing structures and processes to govern risks.